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• LECTURE OUTLINE • NETWORK MANAGEMENT • GOALS , ORGANIZATION & FUNCTIONS • MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONAL AREAS • TMN FUNCTIONAL, INFORMATION AND PHYSICAL ARCHITECTURES • TMN LAYERED ARCHITECTURE • TMN RECOMMENDATIONS AND PRODUCT STATUS
Network Management (Functions & systems)
• Network Management :Goals Organization & Functions)
• Can be defined as Operations, Administration ,Maintenance & provisioning (OAM & P) of Network & services • Operations means daily operations. • Administration is concerned with establishing & administering the overall goals, policies & procedures of network Management. • Installation & Maintenance include installation & repairs of facilities of equipments. • Provisioning involves network planning & circuit provisioning.
• Goal of Network Management
• Ensure users of a network receive the information Technology services with the Quality of service they expect.
Network provisioning Planning Design Accounting & Report Mgmt
Network Operations Fault Mgmt
Configuration Mgmt Performance &security MGMT Inventory & Data gathering
Fault /Trouble MGMT Network Installation Network repairs Facilities installation Routine tests & Maintenance
Network Management functional flowchart
New Tecchnology New Technology
Mgmt Decisions Performance& Traffic Data Engineering Group Network planning & Design
Configuration Data Trouble Ticket Restoration
Network group NOC
Network Installation & Maintenance
NETWORK & SYSTEM MANAGEMENT
• Network Management can be best illustrated by an Analogy of To Others Telephone Network Model Regional Cente • Sectional Cente
Regional center Class 1 switch Regional center Class 1 switch
Sectional center Class 2 switch Primary center Class 3 switch Toll center Class 4 switch End Office Class 5 switch
Sectional center Class 2 switch Primary center Class 3 switch Toll center Class 4 switch End Office Class 5 switch
Primary centers Toll Centers End Offices
Primary cente Toll centers End offices
Class 4 toll poi End offices
Telephone Network Management • The telephone network should be of high degree of reliability & dependable • Quality & speed of connection should be good. • Architecture of the telephone network is hierarchical AT&T 1977) • Five levels of network switches & Three types of trunks that connect these switches KKM-TSEC .
Protocol requirements to carry management information • TMN architecture is composed of functional blocks such as Operation system function (OSF) & Network element function (NEF) • These functional Blocks in physical system is included by Hardwire. Firmware. • TMN architecture is developed was to provide for a multi supplier environment where the managed & managing systems may be provided by different suppliers. KKM-TSEC .& software components. • Predominant function of NEF is to provide telecom service &OSF are the management systems.
• Lecture 2 • Common Management Information Service • Common Management Information Protocol KKM-TSEC .
Common Management Information Service • The Common Management Information Service (CMIS) is the service interface specified in ITU-T Recommendation X. in other areas SNMP has become more popular. • • • • • • • • Services are made available by the Common Management Information Service Element (CMISE) to allow management of network elements ===Management operation services=== * M-CREATE – Create an instance of a managed object * M-DELETE – Delete an instance of a managed object * M-GET – Request managed object attributes (for one object or a set of objects) * M-CANCEL-GET – Cancel an outstanding GET request * M-SET – Set managed object attributes * M-ACTION – Request an action to be performed on a managed KKM-TSEC .710. CMIS/CMIP is most often used in telecommunication applications. ISO/IEC International Standard 9595 that is employed by OSI network elements for network • The term CMIP is sometimes used erroneously when CMIS is intended.
connects to) another CMISE • * M-TERMINATE – Terminates an established connection • * M-ABORT – Terminates the association in the case of an abnormal connection termination KKM-TSEC .. This requires the establishment of an Application layer association.) • • • • Management notification services=== * M-EVENT-REPORT – Send events occurring on managed objects Management association services=== To transfer management information between open systems using CMIS/CMIP.. ''i.Common Management Information Service (CONTD.'' associations. Below is a list of these services which were subsequently removed from ISO 9595: • * M-INITIALIZE – Creates an association with (i. peer connections.e. • CMIS initially defined management association services but it was later decided these services could be provided by Association Control Service Element [[ACSE]] and these services were removed. a Transport layer connection. Network layer and Link layer connections. and. must be established. depending on supporting communication technology.e. a Session layer connection|.
KKM-TSEC . the application layer contains all protocols and methods that fall into the realm of process-to-process communications across an Internet Protocol (IP) network. the session layer and the presentation layer. the definition of its application layer is narrower in scope. OSI specifies strict modular separation of functionality at these layers and provides protocol implementations for each layer. • In the OSI model. Application layer methods use the underlying transport layer protocols to establish host-to-host connections. explicitly distinguishing additional functionality above the transport layer at two additional levels. • In TCP/IP.Application layer • The Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) and the Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI model) of computer networking each specify a group of protocols and methods identified by the name application layer.
• The following protocols are explicitly mentioned in RFC 1123 (1989). its companion RFC-1122 covers the communication protocol layers: link layer. and transport layer. describing the application layer of the Internet protocol suite. KKM-TSEC . • Remote login category • File transfer category • Electronic mail category • Support services category • RFC 1123 • RFC is one of a pair that defines and discusses the requirements for Internet host software. This RFC covers the application and support protocols. IP layer.
It is expected that more sophisticated subsystems will be developed in time. • RFC 15 • Network Subsystem for Time Sharing Hosts September 1969 users at HOST A to connect to HOST B and appear as a regular terminal user to HOST B. extended in RFC 854. but this basic one will render the early net immediately useful. and standardized as Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Internet Standard STD 8.Remote login category • Telnet is a network protocol used on the Internet or local area networks to provide a bidirectional interactive text-oriented communications facility using a virtual terminal connection. • Telnet was developed in 1969 beginning with RFC 15. User data is interspersed in-band with Telnet control information in an 8-bit byte oriented data connection over the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). one of the first Internet standards. KKM-TSEC . • User accesses distant serving HOST via shunt subsystem in his own Host computer.
cooperating closely with the W3C and ISO/IEC standards bodies and dealing in particular with standards of the TCP/IP and Internet protocol suite.• RFC 854 • RFC 854 specifies a standard for the ARPA Internet community. Internet are expected to adopt and implement this standard. Hosts on the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). • Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) • develops and promotes Internet standards. It is an open standards organization. with no formal membership or membership requirements . KKM-TSEC .
FTP is built on a client-server architecture and uses separate control and data connections between the client and the server. • Illustration of starting a passive connection using Port 21 KKM-TSEC .1 FTP users may authenticate themselves using a clear-text sign-in protocol but can connect anonymously if the server is configured to allow it.3 To do so. an FTP server has to be running and waiting for incoming requests. and is used to transfer files using TCP/IP.• File transfer category • File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard network protocol used to transfer files from one host to another host over a TCP-based network. such as the Internet. • FTP operates on the application layer of the OSI model.
Thus. It is therefore useful for booting computers such as routers which may not have any data storage devices. It is an element of the Pre boot Execution Environment (PXE) network boot protocol. TFTP is generally only used on private. it is dangerous to use it over the Internet. KKM-TSEC . TFTP is extremely limited. local networks. and is rarely used interactively by a user.• Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) • It is a file transfer protocol known for its simplicity. • TFTP could be implemented using a very small amount of memory. providing no authentication. It is generally used for automated transfer of configuration or boot files between machines in a local environment. • Due to the lack of security. Compared to FTP. where it is implemented in the firmware ROM / NVRAM of the host's network card.
• Electronic mail category • Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) • It is an Internet standard for electronic mail (e-mail) transmission across Internet Protocol (IP) networks. • Electronic mail servers and other mail transfer agents use SMTP to send and receive mail messages. user-level client mail applications typically only use SMTP for sending messages to a mail server for relaying. client applications usually use either the Post Office Protocol (POP) or the Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) or a proprietary system (such as Microsoft Exchange or Lotus Notes/Domino) to access their mail box accounts on a mail server. • SMTP was first defined by RFC 821 (1982. For receiving messages. KKM-TSEC .1 and last updated by RFC 5321 (2008)2 which includes the extended SMTP (ESMTP) additions. and is the protocol in widespread use today. eventually declared STD 10).
an SMTP server. in the former case. or split among various appliances. these two agents are just different instances of the same software launched with different options on the same machine. mail submission agent) using SMTP on TCP port 587. mail user agent) to a mail server (MSA.• Email is submitted by a mail client (MUA. in the latter case. Local processing can be done either on a single machine. involved processes can share files. SMTP is used to transfer the message internally. Each process is an MTA in its own right. that is. Often. Most mailbox providers still allow submission on traditional port 25. Blue arrows can be implemented using SMTP variations KKM-TSEC . From there. mail transfer agent). with each host configured to use the next appliance as a smart host. the MSA delivers the mail to its mail transfer agent (MTA.
Like IMAP. • Post Office Protocol (POP) • Post Office Protocol (POP) is an application-layer Internet standard protocol used by local e-mail clients to retrieve e-mail from a remote server over a TCP/IP connection. Virtually all modern e-mail clients and servers support both.• Internet message access protocol (IMAP) • It is one of the two most prevalent Internet standard protocols for e-mail retrieval. KKM-TSEC . POP3 is supported by most webmail services such as Hotmail. Virtually all modern e-mail clients and mail servers support both protocols as a means of transferring e-mail messages from a server. the other being the Post Office Protocol (POP). with version 3 (POP3) being the current standard. The POP protocol has been developed through several versions. POP and IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol) are the two most prevalent Internet standard protocols for e-mail retrieval. Gmail and Yahoo! Mail.
services.• Support services category • Domain Name System (DNS) • Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) • Bootstrap Protocol. or any resource connected to the Internet or a private network. It associates various information with domain names assigned to each of the participating entities. or BOOTP • Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) • Common Management Information Protocol (CMIP) • The Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical distributed naming system for computers. Most importantly. it translates domain names meaningful to humans into the numerical identifiers associated with networking equipment for the purpose of locating and addressing these devices worldwide. KKM-TSEC .
KKM-TSEC . Devices that typically support SNMP include routers. or BOOTP. switches. Application layer methods use the underlying transport layer protocols to establish host-to-host connections.• Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) is an obsolete computer networking protocol used by a host computer to request its Internet Protocol (IPv4) address from an administrative host. modem racks. OSI specifies strict modular separation of functionality at these layers and provides protocol implementations for each layer. the session layer and the presentation layer. The BOOTP protocol was originally defined in RFC 951 • Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an "Internet-standard protocol for managing devices on IP networks. the definition of its application layer is narrower in scope. • In the OSI model. when it has available its Link Layer or hardware address. the application layer contains all protocols and methods that fall into the realm of process-to-process communications across an Internet Protocol (IP) network. such as a MAC address. and more. workstations." • The Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) and the Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI model) of computer networking each specify a group of protocols and methods identified by the name application layer. • Bootstrap Protocol. • In TCP/IP. printers. servers. is a network protocol used by a network client to obtain an IP address from a configuration server. explicitly distinguishing additional functionality above the transport layer at two additional levels.
• Thanks KKM-TSEC .
• Lecture 3 KKM-TSEC .
CMISE-MODEL • • • • Two Aspects Operations & Notifications Operations command interface to the manages resources. KKM-TSEC . Notifications gets asynchronous reports from managed resources Request Managed Objects Agent Performer Invoker Responses Operation Model Management operations is used to refer to operations initiated by the management.
• A managed object represents the manageable properties of resource.CMISE-MODEL (Contd) • Management Notifications is used for notifications initiated by the management system. KKM-TSEC . Acknowledgement Managed Objects Agent Invoker Performer Notifications Notification Model Managed objects with the same properties are instances of a managed object Class Ex. log & Alarm record. Network element.
• The agent system in the performer role receives the request & the result of operation (success/error) is returned in the response.CMISE MODEL • What is Invoker & performer. KKM-TSEC . • Each object that performs the request returns a response. • In notification model roles are reversed. • Performer side has two concepts 1. • As a notification it may or may not be acknowledged hence dotted Lines are used. • First a request is issued by a managing system in the invoker role. • Notifications are a remote operation invoked by the agent system. • In operation Model Invoker role is assumed by a managing system & the performer role by the agent system. agent & set of managed objects.
Request to cancel a previously Invoked M-GET service . KKM-TSEC .Service Definitions Service M-EVENT-REPORT M-GET M-SET Type CONFIRMED / UNCONFIRMED confirmed Confirmed / Un confirmed Confirmed / Un confirmed confirmed confirmed confirmed Description Report an occurrence of an event To another open system Retrieve attribute and their Values from managed objects Modify attributes values of managed objects Request an open system to perform An action on managed object M-ACTION M-CREATE M-DELETE M-CANCEL-GET Request an open system to create a new Object (Only one instance /request) Request an open system to delete Managed objects.
• Before any management operations can be performed using CMIP. it is necessary for the two application entities involved to form an association. • ACSE allows the manager and agent to exchange application entity titles for the purpose of identification and application context names to establish an application context. Either the manager or the agent can initiate association establishment.• ACSE • The Association Control Service Element (ACSE) is used to establish and release associations between application entities. KKM-TSEC . ACSE is not used again until the association is released by the manager or agent. ROSE and CMISE) may be used over the association. • An application context defines what service elements (for instance. • After the association is established.
KKM-TSEC . • The Remote Operation protocol contains an invoke identifier for correlating requests and responses. an operation code. • CMIP also uses the error response facilities provided by ROSE. • ROSE allows the invocation of an operation to be performed on a remote system.• ROSE • The Remote Operation Service Element (ROSE) is the ISO equivalent of remote procedure call. • ROSE can only be invoked once an application association has been established. • CMIP uses the transaction-oriented services provided by ROSE for all its requests and responses. and an argument field for parameters specific to the operation.
• These services are used by manager and agent application entities to exchange management information. In addition. • The CMISE provides both confirmed and unconfirmed services for reporting events and retrieving and manipulating management data. Service M-INITIALISE | M-TERMINATE M-ABORT M-EVENT-REPORT M-GET M-SET M-ACTION M-CREATE M-DELETE Type confirmed confirmed | non-confirmed confirmed/non-confirmed confirmed confirmed/non-confirmed confirmed/non-confirmed confirmed confirmed KKM-TSEC . Table below provides a list of the CMISE services. the CMISE also provides the ability to issue a series of (multiple) linked replies in response to a single request.• CMISE is a user of both ROSE and ACSE.
• In addition to the other CMIS services. KKM-TSEC .• CMIS services can be divided into two main classes: Management association services • Information transfer services. the CMISE provides facilities that enable multiple responses to confirmed operations to be linked to the operation by the use of a linked identification parameter. • • There are two types of information transfer services: • Management notification services and Management operation services.
• Management Association Services • CMIS provides services for the establishment and release of application associations. (A CMISEservice-user is that part of an application process that makes use of the CMISE. • The M-INITIALISE service is invoked by a CMISE-service-user to establish an association with a remote CMISE-service-user for the purpose of exchanging management information. The M-ABORT service is invoked by a CMISEservice-user or a CMISE. • These services are simply pass-through to ACSE. KKM-TSEC . A reply is expected.service-user in an abrupt manner.) • The M-TERMINATE service is invoked by a CMISE-service-user to release • An association with a remote CMISE-service-user in an orderly manner. • These services control the establishment and normal and abnormal release of a management association. • A reply is expected.service-provider to release an association with a remote CMISE.
• In the confirmed mode. • The M-EVENT-REPORT service is invoked by a CMISE-serviceuser to report an event about a managed object to a remote CMISEservice. a reply is expected. • The service may be requested in a confirmed or a non-confirmed mode.• Management Notification Services • The definition of notification and the consequent behavior of the communicating entities is dependent upon the specification of the managed object which generated the notification and is outside the scope of CMIS.user. KKM-TSEC . • CMIS provides the following service to convey management information applicable to notifications.
• The service may only be requested in a confirmed mode. A reply is expected. KKM-TSEC . • The M-GET service is invoked by a CMISE-service-user to request the retrieval of management information from a remote CMISEservice-user.• Management Operation Services • The definition of the operation and the consequent behavior of the communicating entities is dependent upon the specification of the managed object at which the operation is directed and is outside the scope of CMIS. certain operations are used frequently within the scope of management and CMIS provides the following definitions of the common services that may be used to convey management information applicable to the operations. • However.
• The service may be requested in a confirmed or a non-confirmed mode. A reply is expected. • The service may only be requested in a confirmed mode. a reply is expected. A reply is expected. • The M-DELETE service is invoked by a CMISE-service-user to request a remote CMISE-service-user to delete an instance of a managed object. • The service may only be requested in a confirmed mode. • In the confirmed mode. a reply is expected. • The service may be requested in a confirmed or a non-confirmed mode.• Management Operation Services…contd • The M-SET service is invoked by a CMISE-service-user to request the modification of management information by a remote CMISE-serviceuser. • The M-CREATE service is invoked by a CMISE-service-user to request a remote CMISE-service-user to create another instance of a managed object. KKM-TSEC . • The M-ACTION service is invoked by a CMISE-service-user to request a remote CMISE-service-user to perform an action. In the confirmed mode.
• Tutorial-1 • Define CMISE model & service definitions. • Explain in detail management association services and information transfer services • With the help of a diagram explain network management system based on the CMIP/CMIS: KKM-TSEC .
• CMIP does not specify the functionality of the network management application. • CMIS defines a system of network management information services. authorization and security logs. KKM-TSEC . • The CMIP specification for TCP/IP networks is called CMOT (CMIP Over TCP) and the version for IEEE 802 LAN's is called CMOL (CMIP Over LLC). modified or controlled and can be used to perform tasks.• Common Management Information Protocol (CMIP) • It is an OSI protocol used with the Common Management Information Services (CMIS) • Supports information exchange between network management applications and management agents. • CMIP uses an ISO reliable connection-oriented transport mechanism and has built in security that supports access control. • CMIP supplies an interface that provides functions which maybe used to support both ISO and user-defined management protocols. it only defines the information exchange mechanism of the managed objects and not how the information is to be used or interpreted. The management information is exchanged between the network management application and management agents thru managed objects • Managed objects are a characteristic of a managed device that can be monitored. • CMIP/CMIS are proposed as competing protocols to the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP ) in the TCP/IP suite .
• : KKM-TSEC .
but also can be used to perform tasks. and security logs.• The major advantages of CMIP over SNMP are: • CMIP variables not only relay information. and notification services. The management services provided by CMIP/CMISE can be organized into two distinct groups. This is impossible under SNMP. used by the management agents to inform the managers that some event or set of events have occurred. access control. • CMIP is a safer system as it has built in security that supports authorization. KKM-TSEC . management operation services initiated by a manager to request that an agent provide certain services or information. • CMIP provides better reporting of unusual network conditions • Access to managed information in the managed objects is provided by the Common Management Information Service Element (CMISE) that uses CMIP (Common Management Information Protocol) to issue requests for management services. • CMIP provides powerful capabilities that allow management applications to accomplish more with a single request.
Lecture -4 • Rationale of INFORMATION MODELLING OF TMN • Management of Information Model KKM-TSEC .
Details are added as the problem is decomposed.INFORMATION MODELLING OF TMN • Mr. Information modeling approaches vary widely. and this process continues until the data elements & the corresponding data structures are defined” Designing system engineering specifications. There are many application standards or public domain documents with Information models. Information modeling is not specific to Network management. Ex: Directory.M. Entity –relationship (E-R) models used to define the Business entities & relationships between them. A major goal of TMN architecture is interoperability (property to the ability of diverse systems and organizations to work together (inter-operate)) . when developing a system which is simple or complex has the advantage of performing analysis prior to incurring costs associated with actual development. message handling system. Internet management &database management etc. • • • • • • KKM-TSEC .Flavin in his Book Fundamental Concepts of Information Modeling says “As a Top Down design procedure where the initial step is to start with a high level design.
• It is usually said that specifications should be complete also. • ITU-T has adopted GDMO (Guidelines for the Definition of Managed Objects) as the means of expressing management information models. • This means that the fundamental quality of the model will depend on the knowledge. • Before commencing management information modeling. Completeness depends on a strict definition of the full use to which the functionality will be put.Management Information Models • Management information models are specifications and as such. skill and concentration of the model producers. a deep knowledge of the problem domain is essential. • The manner in which the model is expressed and documented has a large bearing on the ambiguity that may be inherent in the model. KKM-TSEC . have to be concise (contain only definitions of essential functionality) and unambiguous (no room should be left for alternative interpretations).
Modeling Requirements • Logical and Intuitive Representation of the Resources The Managed Object Classes (MOCs) defined should present a view of the resources. This allows new management techniques to be developed over time and applied to existing managed object instances. which are tailored to a particular method of management. which may be used by a wide variety of management applications. their behavior. and the relationships between these resources that is logical and intuitive to a person who understands the resources themselves. • Ability to Accommodate a Wide Variety of Management Operations The MOCs. KKM-TSEC . as specified. should possess a wide variety of basic management capabilities. rather than a few complex capabilities.
Modeling Requirements (contd…) • Ability to Present Different Views to Different Managers It should be possible for a managed system to present different views of the resources that it represents to different managing systems. the service customer's view will probably be a subset of the information model of the managed system or service). • Ability to Reflect Optional Characteristics It must be possible to specify managed object classes with optional characteristics or groups of characteristics.. For example if the managed system is a telecommunications service.e. Different users will require different views of the managed system. KKM-TSEC . then the service customers will have a different view of the service than the service provider will have (i.
and especially. KKM-TSEC . different interpretations by different communicating parties may prevent or hinder interoperability. behaviors of the managed object class. • This includes specification of all "visible" attributes. • If this is not done.Specification Requirements • Completeness • All aspects of a managed object class that are necessary for communication across the interoperable interface must be specified. notifications. • Precision • Only one interpretation of a specification must be possible to ensure interoperability. • Reusability • Specifications and components of specifications must be reusable. to encourage greater productivity and greater consistency. operations.
(i. KKM-TSEC .e.Specification Requirements (contd…) • Extensibility • It must be possible to extend a piece of specification without re-specifying the parts which remain unchanged. • Self-descriptiveness • Information Models are self-descriptive if a reader of the Managed Object Classes can easily understand why they have been designed. adding characteristics to existing classes.. Where possible. in some cases. it is desirable that these tests be standardized. to produce abstract specifications which are applicable to a wide variety of implementations. MOCs should be well documented and have meaningful names for attributes and methods). These extensions include adding managed object classes. • Abstractness • It is necessary. • Testability • It must be possible to verify that a system correctly meets a specification.
This is realized by the inclusion of relevant. and if the information is understandable and complete. • Documentation Quality • Specifications are well documented if a person can easily access information about the specification design and capabilities. beyond the syntax and semantics of information exchanged between management systems. • Practicality and Usability • The physical volume of specification must not be too large.Specification Requirements (contd…) • Implementations Independence • Specifications must not impose any constraints on the implementation of systems. informative comments about the reasons a particular part of the model has been included and/or text which provides a common sense meaning for technical terms. KKM-TSEC . The specification should be machine readable and must be reasonably easy to understand by humans. It must relate to understandable concepts or physical resources to aid understanding.
• Thanks KKM-TSEC .
Lecture -5 • Object Class Definition KKM-TSEC .
• Template Overview for the definition of Managed Object Classes KKM-TSEC .
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