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ROBOGRID WORKSHOP:_ A workshop for the beginners for understanding the basics of obstacle sensor, line following and

light seeking robots. ABOUT ROBOT :- The term comes from Czec word Robota which means forced labor or slave like labor.

Robot is an mechanized or virtual intelligence agent that performs complex tasks, hazardous tasks, human like tasks like talking , learning, speaking, walking autonomously or by guidance.

TYPES OF ROBOTS 1) Ground zero : military surveillance , patrolling . 2) GSR1 : telescopic robot. 3) 360 pan view : for 360 degree surveillance . 4) Gripper arms : 5) Grid eye : for image recognition. 6) Bipedal : walker 7) Hexapod : insect walker. 8) Turtle : Gridbot for obstacle sensors. 9) G-transporter : for transporter.

ROBOT MECHANICS: 1) Drives : a) Full differential drives having one motor for each wheel. b) Half differential drive having one motor for two wheels. c) other drives like belt, chain, pulley (skid type ) and gears . d) Pivot drive e) car type drive f) synchronous drive g) Asynchronous drive

ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS:
1) Prime movers : stepper motor: A brushless D.C motor that divides a full rotation into number of intervals of equal step size which can than be commanded to move or hold position in open loop operation.

2) Servo motor: Beside Stepped motion as in stepper motor a servo mechanism that uses an decoder for input output feedback for precise control of mechanical degrees of freedom. 3) Side shaft motors :for more torque to power ratio. 4) Power supply : A.C or D.C using batteries. 5) Switches :to break the current in the circuit . 6) Relays: An electrically operated switch. a) Contactors: for operating a motor b) SSR (solid state relays): for controlling power circuits with no moving parts. 7) D.P.D.T : A four way switch meaning double pole double throw switch TO change polarity .

ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS: 1) Sensors : Transducers that converts input into voltage. a) L.D.R (light detecting resistor ) used as light sensor in which R 1/(intensity of radiation) b) Thermistor: Is a transducer whose resistance varies with temperature. c) Obstacle sensor using I.R L.E.D transmitter emitter as T.S.O.P( thin small outline package ) d) Line following sensor using a photo diode.
e) micro controller: the brain of the robot e.g ATMEL ATMEGA AVR FAMILY 8048, 8051, f) I.Cs Integrated circuits for interconnections between circuits. Connecting pins and connectors : 1 Ground 2 supply 3 transmit signal 4 receiver signal

BASIC GRID COMPONENTS:

1) ATMEL ATMEGA 16 AVR micro controller board with 8 pins with EEPROM 1) 2 servo motors 2) Sensors : light, line ,obstacle, etc 3) Batteries and casing ,4*1.5 volts 4) Castor wheel 5) Accessories: wheels, board 35*25cm^2, rubber wheels connecting wires 6) Tools :cutter, feviquick , screw drivers et.c
DESIGN AND CONNECTIONS: DESIGN AND CIRCUITING PORTS : 1. EMPTY 2. SIGNAL OF OBSTACLE SENSOR 3. OBSTACLE SENSOR 4. LIGHT SENSOR 5. LINE FOLLOWER 134 PINS 6. LINE FOLLOWER 2 , SUPPLY PIN 7. LINE FOLLOWER 134 PINS 8. LINE FOLLOWER 2 , SUPPLY PIN

PARTS 1. EQUILATERAL TRIANGLE OF SIDE 14cm FOR MASS BALANCING + ALLOWANCES 2.5 cm ON EACH SIDES FOR MOUNTING DEVICES 2. MOTOR SUPPORTS 3.5*3 sq cm 2 IN NUMBER 3. BOARD SHAPE AS GROUP MEMBERS 4. SPOILERS AT BACK 5. LINE FOLLOWER SUPPORTS 6. CASTOR WHEEL SUPPORTS

GROUP MEMBERS 1. KUSH VERMA 9950431523 2.ABHISHEK GAUR 3.ABHISHEK RAJPUROHIT 4. NITESH GROUP INSTRUCTOR 1. PRATIK JI PANDEY 2. SUBHASH JI

PROGRAMMING:

/ program to turn the 4th L.E.D and later turn off */


# include<avr/io.h> # include <avr/delay.h> # include<compact/deprecated.h> Void main() { Init_Board(); Switch_LED(4,1); Waits(5000); Switch_LED(4,0); } / The LED at the 4th position glows for 5000msec and turns off*/ /program transfer wizard is DotNet_Bootload*/ / program to move the robot*/

# include<avr/io.h> # include<avt/delay.h> # include<compact.deprecated.h> Void main() { While(1) {

turn_right(); waits(500); move_st(); waits(2000); move_bck(); waits(2000); turn_left(); waits(500); stop(); waits(1000); } } */ Robot moves infinitely in the defined path */