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UAV Operating Environments
• National airspace • UAV implications
- You will have a basic understanding of how national airspace rules drive UAV design and operations - This is a very complicated subject and you are not expected to commit any of this to memory
UAV operating environments
c 2002 LM Corporation
Design of UAV Systems Airspace Environment All countries have rules for how aircraft must operate in their airspace. • Most follow guidelines developed by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) • Rules apply to two types of airspace .Terminal airspace .the airways .around airports Airspace rules are based on manned aircraft experience • UAVs will have to fit into the established system The system gives pilots. not air traffic control (ATC). primary responsibility for safe operation of their aircraft c 2002 LM Corporation UAV operating environments 6-2 .Enroute airspace .
is ….Under IFR it is assumed that a pilot cannot see other aircraft and air traffic control assumes responsibility for maintaining safe separation between IFR aircraft • But in other than IMC. therefore.Design of UAV Systems Basic rules • At a minimum all pilots are required to follow Visual Flight Rules (VFR) : allowed when visibility is good (called visual meteorological conditions or VMC) • Certified instrument pilots can operate under Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) : required when visibility is poor (called instrument meteorological conditions or IMC) or when above 18Kft ..SEE AND AVOID…… UAVs must be equipped to do this c 2002 LM Corporation UAV operating environments 6-3 . The basic airspace operating principle for both VFR and IFR traffic. VFR and IFR aircraft will often share the same airspace.
Example.Etc.Fly close to the ground except to take off and land .Easterly headings at odd altitudes + 500 ft .Design of UAV Systems Visual Flight Rules • Apply except when an aircraft is IFR • Generally describe what a pilot cannot do . fly at certain altitudes for certain headings . • Also describe what a pilot should/must do .Fly in or near clouds .Fly above certain speeds .Fly in certain types of controlled airspace without permission (usually from an air traffic controller) .Follow air traffic control instructions (except when safety is an issue) c 2002 LM Corporation UAV operating environments 6-4 .Westerly headings at even altitudes + 500 ft .
Maintain assigned altitudes and headings .Design of UAV Systems Instrument Flight Rules • Generally describe what a pilot must do .The pilot is always in command • IFR aircraft are also required to be in radio contact with ATC and to be equipped with encoding radio transponders that provide altitude information and make aircraft easy to track c 2002 LM Corporation UAV operating environments 6-5 .Follow approved flight plans .Etc.Follow established procedures .Report positions .Comply with air traffic control instructions . • Exceptions are related to flight safety .A pilot does not have to accept air traffic control (ATC) instructions when flight safety is an issue .
control near the airport (5 NM) .Control tower .Have sufficient traffic for a control tower and sometimes other services.control out to 30 NM • Smaller airports . Operate VFR (See and Avoid!) except when IMC c 2002 LM Corporation UAV operating environments 6-6 .Control traffic out to 5 NM Uncontrolled airports .Design of UAV Systems Terminal airspace Two categories of airports Controlled airports . Airport size varies: • Large airports .No control tower.Mostly operate VFR . Radio communication (contact) is mandatory.Operate under rules that are like IFR at all times .Approach and departure .Multiple control functions . Radio contact not required.
larger airports with radar plus approach and departure control (out to about 10 NM) Class D .The largest airports that control traffic out to about 30 NM Class C .cont’d Airport and terminal airspace (ICAO definitions) Controlled airports Class B .an airport with an instrument approach Class F Class G .an airport with no instrument approach c 2002 LM Corporation UAV operating environments 6-7 .Design of UAV Systems Terminal airspace .an airport with a control tower only Uncontrolled airports Class E .
000 feet MSL. IFR aircraft don’t fly in Class G except when taking off and landing (from uncontrolled airports).from 18. .000 feet MSL. Also includes all airspace from 14.Design of UAV Systems Enroute Airspace More ICAO definitions Class A .000 feet MSL. Class G .Positive control airspace . Both IFR and VFR traffic fly in Class E airspace. Class E .500-18.Controlled airspace from 1200 feet above ground level (AGL) to 18.Also includes airspace above 60 Kft! c 2002 LM Corporation UAV operating environments 6-8 .Uncontrolled airspace from the surface to 1200 ft AGL. Only IFR traffic operate in Class A airspace.000 feet above mean sea level (MSL) to 60.
They must be equipped for “See and Avoid” c 2002 LM Corporation UAV operating environments 6-9 . enroute and arrival • Transponders provide altitude and position track • On-board navigation provides data for other position reports • Radio communication would be through the UAV • Ground operation would still be a problem • But this is not the case . UAVs would have fewer airspace problems • UAV operators would function as virtual pilots • IFR for departure.Design of UAV Systems The UAV Issue • If all airspace were controlled and all traffic were IFR.UAVs have to deal with VFR traffic and operations .
Manned aircraft get radio warnings.Design of UAV Systems Current UAV status (military) • Operation in military controlled airspace is not an issue • They sometimes shut down manned operations when UAVs are operating near or on military air fields • Operations in civil airspace above 18Kft is not an issue • All traffic is IFR • Operations below 18Kft is the issue • Early military operations (cruise missile testing) had to use chase aircraft to ensure safe operations • New rules are being negotiated • US UAVs are allowed to fly enroute through selected (but not all) terminal airspace • Takeoff and landing is allowed from small fields at planned times. c 2002 LM Corporation UAV operating environments 6-10 .
24 March 2003 But the events of 9/11 may have a major effect on how nonmilitary UAVs are allowed to operate in national air space c 2002 LM Corporation UAV operating environments 6-11 .Design of UAV Systems Current UAV status (civil) NASA taking lead in evaluating various manned-unmanned traffic avoidance schemes NASA News Release: 03-17.
• Manned aircraft pilots will get used to them c 2002 LM Corporation UAV operating environments 6-12 .operations will shut down to accommodate unplanned arrival of a UAV • Later VFR operations probably will be allowed • UAVs will operate (and be equipped for) flight in all types of airspace.Design of UAV Systems Future projection • UAVs probably will initially be limited to IFR rules • Operations will be in and out of controlled fields where controllers are familiar with UAVs • UAVs will use on board electro-optical sensors and collision avoidance systems (e. TCAS) to maintain separation from other traffic • Manned aircraft will be kept away • Emergencies will be a problem .g.
Current airspace rules limit UAV operations .The rules will undergo change .At a minimum UAVs will have to be equipped for manned IFR operations and have sensors to provide “see and avoid” c 2002 LM Corporation UAV operating environments 6-13 .Design of UAV Systems Expectations You should now understand the issues associated with UAV operating environments .
Design of UAV Systems Intermission c 2002 LM Corporation UAV operating environments 6-14 .
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