History of Ultrasound

First introduced to medical world in 1950s
However, has its beginnings in the 1880s when Pierre Curie introduced simple echo sounding methods. This led to the discovery of SONAR (Sound Navigating and Ranging)

the technique of sending sound waves through the water and observing the returning echoes to characterize submerged objects inspired early ultrasound investigators. Shortly after WWII.  . researchers in Japan began to explore medical diagnostic capabilities of ultrasound. SONAR.

US pioneers contributed many innovations and important discoveries to the field in the following decades. breast masses. The US and Europe became aware of this new diagnostic technique in the 1950s when Japan presented their findings on the use of ultrasound to detect gallstones.  . and tumors.

. Early 1970s  Gray scale static images of internal organs  Mid 1970s  Real-time imaging  Early 1980s   Spectral Doppler Color Doppler  Also produced was a hand-held “contact” scanner for clinical use.

Maslak developed the 128-channel Computed Sonography platform. Samuel H.  . 1996 – Acuson Corp. ultrasound technique was technologically more advanced than computers. after all these innovations. Because of this. This allowed for black-andwhite and color ultrasound images with superior resolution and clarity. In the 1980s. developed the Sequoia 512 system.

In the 1940s. it was initially used for therapy rather than diagnosis. Ultrasonic waves emit heat that can create disruptive effects on animal tissue and destroy malignant tissue. ultrasound was used to perform services similar to that of radiation or chemotherapy now.   . Although ultrasound is better known for its diagnostic capabilities.

Principles of Ultrasound: Its Components Operations Applications .

Components        Transducer Probe Transducer Pulse Controls CPU Display Keyboard/Cursor Disk Storage Device Printer .

 .Physics of Ultrasound  Transducer Probe   „Mouth and Ears‟ of the machine. which emit electrical signals. which in turn propagate sound waves. Piezoelectric Effect Discovered by Pierre and Jacques Curie  Application of electric currents changes the shape of the crystals.  Receipt of sound waves changes shape of crystals again.

Uses of Ultrasound     Detection of tumors (Oncology). Evaluation of blood flow (Cardiology). . Insertions. Assesment of the development of fetus (OB/GYN).

Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology .

and cost effective tool to look at the fetus. but recommended that normally the woman have 2 to 3. accurate. noninvasive.  Ultrasound is extensively used in obstetrics and gynecology as a safe. No set number of scans. .

placental position (or at 13-14 weeks to diagnose Down Syndrome). . exclude ectopic or molar pregnancies. exclude multiple pregnancies. and measure the crown-rump length for dating 2nd scan at 18-20 weeks: look for congenital malformations.  1st scan at 7 weeks: confirm pregnancy. confirm cardiac pulsation. verify dates and growth.

verify fetal position . 3rd scan at 34 weeks: evaluate fetal size and assess fetal growth.

Technique    The woman’s abdomen is covered with a gel so that the transducer can see through the skin real.time scanners (frequency sound waves between 3.0 megahertz) can give a continuous picture of the moving fetus The transducer is placed in contact with the abdomen and moved about to look at different parts of the uterus.5 and 7. Several ultrasound beams scan the fetus in thin slices. which are recomposed into a picture on the monitor screen .

What ultrasound detects  verify intrauterine implantation to exclude ectopic pregnancy. and determine if there are multiple embryos . to establish gestation age and due date. to diagnose a missed abortion.

  First trimester markers for chromosomal abnormalities are used to detect Down syndrome Hydrocephalus. gastroschisis. anencephaly. spina befida. duodenal atresia. dwarfism. myelomeningocoele. and fetal hydrops can be diagnosed before 20 weeks . exomphalos.

the diameter of the head. biparietal diameter. and by five and a half weeks the embryo can be visualized and measured Doppler ultrasound can detect a visible heart beat and blood flow in fetal blood vessels by six to seven weeks crown-rump length measured 7 to 13 weeks and gives an accurate estimation of gestational age.   four and a half weeks the gestational sac can be visualized. femur length at 14 weeks . by five weeks the yolk sac. measured after 13 weeks.

facial dysmorphia. cleft lips/ palate. and clubbing of feet . polydactyl. spina bifida. low-set ears.

Ultrasound Tools     Traditional 2-D 3-D 4-D or dynamic 3-D scanners Transvaginal scanning .

html http://www.obgyn.asp?page=ga llery/gallery http://3dultrasound.obultrasound.net/us/us.edu/gallery.html .Images  http://www.net/goodwork.ucsd.

Safety and Risks .

sound waves can increase body temperature   This is known as cavitation Significant only for long exposure time . Unlike X-rays. ultrasound involves only sound waves  No radiation danger  However.

dyslexia or delayed speech development Reliable data from ultrasound techniques is hard to come by Additional studies are ongoing Biggest risk is misdiagnosis .     Many studies have been conducted to determine the physiological effects of ultrasound cavitation No direct correlation has been found between ultrasound imaging and cancer. low birth weight.

Future of Ultrasound     Improved clarity for use in cancer diagnosis Increased therapeutic use to correct blood clots and kidney stones Portability and veterinary use Joint and muscle treatment through cavitation .

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