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IP over WDM network

Fang Yu 294 Class Presentation

Outline

History of WDM networks Current Internet: Multi-layer protocol stack between IP and WDM layers Future: IP directly over WDM

Challenge Virtual Topology Reconfiguration Multi-layer routing One proposal: Optical Burst Switching technologies

History

In the late 70s

First fiber based optical transmission system


Mostly a single high-speed optical channel All multiplexing done in electrical domain(TDM) 50Mb/s to 10Gb/s data services WDM allows simultaneously transmitting multiple high-speed channels on different frequencies (Up to 160 wavelengths today) 40G per l (OC768) Total link capacity = 160 l *40G =6.4 Tbps

Before 1995

After 1995

Current Typical Protocol Stacks


IP ATM SONET WDM
Network Data link Network
IP SONET ATM

Data link Network Data link Physical WDM

Transport Layer Model


Packet Packet Packet

1/0 DCS 1/0 DCS

1/0 DCS 1/0 DCS

4E

4E 4E 4E

Packet

LA

CHCG

Service Layers

DS1 (1.5 Mb/s)


ATM/IP ATM/IP ATM/IP ATM/IP

DS3 (45 Mb/s)


DACS III DACS III

LA 3/1 DCS
3/1 DCS 3/1 DCS

3/1 DCS

CHCG

3/1 DCS Layer

Core ATM/IP Layers


DS3 (45 Mb/s)

LA

CHCG

DACS III

DACS III

3/3 DCS Layer (DACS III)

LA
OC48+ (2.5+ Gb/s)

ADM ADM

PHNX
ADM ADM

ADM

ADM

CHCG

ADM

SONET ADM Layer


Wavelength Path Crossconnect

HardWired

LA

OTS

OTS

OTS

OTS

OTS

OTS

PHNX

(OTS: CHCG Optical Transport System)

Proprietary (20-400 Gb/s)

LA

CHCG PHNX
Fiber Conduit/ Sheath

Wavelength Mux Section Crossconnect

Media Layer

Disadvantage of Current Multilayer Protocol Stack

Inefficient

In IP over ATM over SONET over WDM network, 22% bandwidth used for protocol overhead

Layers often do not work in concert

Every layer now runs at its own speed. So, low speed devices cannot fill the wavelength bandwidth. When detecting of failure, different layers compete for protection

Optical layer detects failure almost immediately, restores error in 2us to 60ms SONET layer detects failure in 2.3100 us, restores error in 60 ms

Disadvantage of Current Multilayer Protocol Stack (Cont)

Functional overlap: So many layers are doing the same thing


Routing Protections Electronic devices can not catch the transmission speed available at optical layer

Slow speed

Latencies of connection

Historical Reason for Multi-layer

SONET over WDM

Conventional WDM deployment is using SONET as standard interface to higher layers


IP packets need to be mapped into ATM cells before transporting over WDM using SONET frame

IP over ATM

OEO conversions at every node is easier to build than all optical switch
Electronic Network

Electronic Network

E/O

O/E/O O/E/O O/E/O

O/E/O O/E/O O/E/O

E/O

E/O

E/O

Electronic Network

Optical Core

Electronic Network

Simplified Protocol Stacks?


IP
IP Frame Relay ATM SONET WDM Current Typical Protocol Stack Simplified Protocol Stack
WDM-aware Electronic layer

WDM

IP Directly Over WDM?


Establish high-speed optical layer connections (lightpaths) IP routers connected through lightpaths rather than fiber
IP router B E Wavelength crossconnect Lightpaths A D C

Challenge for IP over WDM network

WDM-aware Electronic layer


Reconfiguration and load balancing Protection and restoration Optical flow switching Network management/control Cross-layer optimization

Reconfigurable (within milli-seconds) OXC Wavelength Converters


2 3 2 WC 3

No l converters
1

With l converters
1
New request 1 3

New request 1 3

Virtual Topology Reconfiguration

Physical topology

Seen by optical layer

Virtual topology: a set of nodes interconnected by light-paths (wavelength)

Seen by electronic layer Changing the light path connectivity between electronic switches Tuning of the transmitter wavelength and the frequency-selectiveswitches

Reconfigure of light-paths in WDM network by


Virtual Topology Reconfiguration(Cont.)

Enable network to dynamically response to changing of traffic pattern Load balancing Fixed 0.1 Routing Efficiency
0.01

X6

Reconfigurable Routing

WDM ring, 20 nodes one transceiver/node call BW = 1 wavelength

Issues:

0.001 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04

0.05

Call arrival rate

Time scale of changes Triggered by what mechanisms IP routing properties (e. g. stability)

Multi-layer Routing

IP layer routing is the bottleneck of present Internet Solution: Routing long duration flows at lower layers

User 1

...
Router 1

Network control
Router 2

User 2

...
Router 3

WDM layer
Conventional packet routing Optical bypass of intermediate routers for high volume traffic End-to end (user-to-user) flow of entire file bypassing routers

LIDS

Switching all the packets in optical layer?


Requires intelligence in the optical layer Need to store packet during header processing Optical buffers are extremely hard to implement

1 pkt = 12 kbits @ 10 Gbps requires 1.2 s of delay => 360 m of fiber)

Optical Packet Switch still has a long way to go

Various Optical Switching Technologies

Optical Burst Packet Switching

Retrospect the goal of IP over WDM:


Avoid electronic bottlenecks Decrease the cost by simplifying the multiple layer architecture

OBS is one proposal of how to realize such a network

Optical Burst Switching

Resources are allocated using one way reservation


Sender sends a request Sender sends burst without waiting for an acknowledgement of its reservation request Switch does preparation for the burst when getting the request

Bursts can have variable lengths Burst switching does not necessarily require buffering

Various OBSs

The schemes differ in the way bandwidth release is triggered. In-band-terminator (IBT) header carries the routing information, then the payload followed by silence (needs to be done optically). Tell-and-go (TAG) a control packet is sent out to reserve resources and then the burst is sent without waiting for acknowledgement. Refresh packets are sent to keep the path alive.

Main Characteristics of Optical Burst Switching


There is a time separation(offset time) between header and data Header and data are usually carried on different channels

Header goes through sophisticated electronic processing Data is kept in optical domain

Conclusion

Current IP over ATM over SONET over WDM network is inefficient and redundant Future IP directly over WDM network

Advantages Less latency Automatic provisioning Higher bandwidth utilization Challenge of packet directly over WDM network Optical buffer Optical burst switch is one of the proposed techniques to IP over WDM network

Reference

John Strand, Optical Networking and IP over Optical, Feb 4, 2002 Kumar N. Sivarajan, IP over Intelligent Optical Networks, Jan 5, 2001 Gaurav Agarwal, A Brief Introduction to Optical Networks, 2001 Yang Lihong, Optical Burst Switching, CMU networking seminar presentation Vincent W. S. Chan, Optical Networks: Technology and Architecture Eytan Modian, WDM-Based Packet Networks, IEEE Communication Magazine, March 1999 Ornan (Ori) Gerstel, Rajiv Ramaswami,, Optical Layer SurvivabilityAn Implementation Perspective, IEEE Journal on selected areas in communications, October 2000 Eytan Modiano, Aradhana Narula-Tam, Survivable lightpath routing:a new approach to the design of WDM-based networks, IEEE JSAC,April 2002 R. Ramaswami and K. N. Sivarajan, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective, San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann, 1998.