G2 - Productive, profitable, resilient agriculture & aquaculture systems

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Objectives
1. Rice varieties a. validate new varieties suitable for various cropping systems in a range of environments (salinity, water stagnation) b. initiate seed distribution & dissemination in study areas 2. Rice-based cropping systems Develop & disseminate more productive, profitable, resilient, & diversified rice-based cropping systems (including riceaquaculture in saline areas) 3. Homestead production systems Identify management practices to enhance the productivity & profitability of homestead production systems 4. Year-round aquaculture systems Develop & disseminate more productive, profitable, resilient & diversified brackish-water aquatic production systems for zones too saline for agricultural crops 5. Recommendations Produce technology & policy recommendations for up- & out- 2 scaling

ACTIVITIES
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Development & finalisation of contracts with partners Recruitment of staff & students Field trips Participation in IFWF3 Conduct of research
– – – – Workplan development Literature reviews Surveys Implementation of field experiments & demonstrations

This presentation - reporting by ACTIVITIES • What we did (the activity) • Key findings • Outputs Issues Opportunities Plans

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CPWF Innovation Project

ACTIVITY 1 LoAs (& other partnerships)

Patuakhali Sci & Tech Uni.

Jahangir Alam

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ACTIVITY 2 Recruitment

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ACTIVITY 3 Field trips (MAJOR - May, Oct 2011, Mar 2012) + many, many more  1. site selection rice variety & cropping systems trials  rice-aquaculture & year-round aquaculture trials

ACTIVITY 3 Field trips (MAJOR - May, Oct 2011, Mar 2012) + many, many more  1. site selection rice variety & cropping systems trials  rice-aquaculture & year-round aquaculture trials
North 24 Parganas Polder 3 trials South 24 Parganas Polder 30 trials & study watershed BRRI Barisal trials

Polder 43/2/F trials

West Bengal, India

Bangladesh

Andy8Nelson

ACTIVITY 3 Field trips  2. better understanding of constraints & opportunities
– socio-economic, cultural, institutional, environmental, production systems

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ACTIVITY 3 Field trips  3. cross-disciplinary insights & increased collaboration

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ACTIVITY 3 Field trips  4. team building & bonding within the Gs, across the Gs, with management

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ACTIVITY 4
 1. GBDC cross-project learning & team building  2. CPWF cross-basin insights

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ACTIVITY 5 – Research
5.1 Development of detailed research plans 1. Rice varieties a. Variety selection for each polder, expt design, implementation & monitoring plans b. Seed multiplication, distribution, training & monitoring plans • 3 seasons/yr (aman, boro, aus) - polders 3 & 43/2/F • 2 seasons/yr (aman, boro) - INDIA • aman only - polder 3

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ACTIVITY 5 – Research
5.1 Development of detailed research plans (cont…) 2. Rice-based cropping systems Expt design, implementation & monitoring plans a. On-farm demonstrations/trials • • • aman-rabi-aus aman-boro aman-boro-aus – polders 30 & 43/2/F – polder 30, INDIA - polder 43/2/F

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ACTIVITY 5 – Research
5.1 Development of detailed research plans (cont…) 2. Rice-based cropping systems Expt design, implementation & monitoring plans b. Controlled experiments • • • aman-rabi-aus aman-boro-aus aman-SHRIMP – polders 30 & PSTU, Barisal - PSTU, Barisal - polder 3

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ACTIVITY 5 – Research
5.1 Development of detailed research plans (cont…) 3. Homestead production systems a. literature review b. survey • sampling strategy (1,300 HH over 3 polders; INDIA tba) • questionnaire design (with CSISA)

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ACTIVITY 5 – Research
5.1 Development of detailed research plans (cont…) 4. Year-round aquaculture systems Expt design, implementation & monitoring plans

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ACTIVITY 5 – Research
5.2 Literature reviews

a. Homestead production systems (in progress) b. Brackish water aquaculture (1st draft)

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Aquaculture and rice-based system in brackish water coastal areas
A review

Importance of fisheries & aquaculture
3500

49.24 12%

1960

Fish production (x000 mt)

3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0

Culture

Capture

351.33 88%
Capture Culture

2010
1950 1952 1954 1956 1958 1960 1962 1964 1966 1968 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010

1351.98 47%
Capture

1547.22 53%
Culture

Fisheries sub-sector contributes ~3.7% to total GDP, 22.2% to agricultural sector, 2.7% to total national export earnings.

Importance of brackish water aquaculture
• While capture and culture fisheries focuses largely the domestic market, brackishwater aquaculture has gradually been becoming more and more export oriented. • Export earnings increased from $ 19 million in 1976-77 to $ 611 million in 2010-11; 85% from shrimp
BW culture, 155.87, 5%

2009-10

25.06, 10.41, 1% 0% 13.22, 0%

12.66, 0%

3.85, 0%

458.11, 14%

Shrimp
Live fish Frozen fish

Fw culture, 1196.11, 41%

Inland capture, 1029.94, 36%

Dried fish Crab & turtle

2885.21, 85%

Shark fins & rayas Others

Marine capture, 517.28, 18%

Importance of brackish water aquaculture
• Substantial employment in shrimp farms as well as in trade/commerce, processing, marketing and exporting • In 1983, on-farm and off-farm employment was 4.1 & 5.9 million person days, respectively • In 1990 on-farm and off-farm employment was 22.6 million person days • In 2005, 59.4 million person days • It is logical to assume that it might be more at present & the shrimp industry would play a pivotal role in absorbing the surplus rural labour force in coastal areas

Importance of brackish water aquaculture
• 46% of shrimp farm production (fish and small shrimps) providing nutrition to coastal rural people

Fish 47839mt 33%

Bagda 49800 mt 34%

Other shrimp 21899 mt 15%

Golda 26138 mt 18%

Shrimp farm production in 2008-09

Historical development of shrimp industry
• Age-old paddy dominating bheri farming system up to 60s • Polderization from early 60s to 80s • Bagda farming within polders started in early 70s & continued to flourish rapidly • Golda farming started in earlymid 80s • Shrimp farming was declared as industry in the 2nd FYP (1980-85)

Historical development of shrimp industry
• BW aquaculture farming, particularly bagda expanded rapidly • 1979–80 16,500 ha bagda 3,500 ha golda • 2009-10, about 194,198 ha bagda 52,000 ha golda
300 250 Farm area (x000 ha)
203 246 217 217

200 150
108 138 87 141 141

100 50 0
20

Historical development of shrimp industry
• Shrimp farming exclusively in 4 coastal districts • Satkhira- 52,375 ha, • Khulna- 51,921 ha, • Bagerhat- 59,424 ha, • Cox’s Bazar- 32,018 ha
Barishal, 3807, 4%

2008-09
Dhaka, 96, 0%
Chittagong 20193, 21%

Khulna, 73650, 75%

• Major shrimp farming area expanded in Khulna division by • 162% from 1984 to 1997; • 3%, from 1997 to 2002; • 59% from 2002 to 2009.

Historical development of shrimp industry
• Over the 1980s and early 1990s there was considerable conflict between paddy (rice) farmers & the shrimp farming industry. • 46.7% farmers (mainly in the Khulna region) rotate shrimp culture with Aman rice (FAO, 1998). • With the gradual but widespread increase in owner occupation, reduction in gher size and operation, this conflict has greatly decreased (FFP, 2001b). • At present 80% farms are operated by their owners rotating their shrimp culture with paddy cultivation • Average farm size is now 9.5 ha (2-37 ha)

Historical development of shrimp industry
Shrimp cropping pattern
Satkhira
Year-round bagda Bagda-rice rotation Khulna Bagda-rice rotation Golda-rice integration Bagerhat Bagda-rice rotation Golda-rice integration Cox’s Bazar Year-round bagda Bagda-salt rotation
Legend: Bagda Rice Golda-fish Salt

Months J F M A M J J A S O N D

Historical development of shrimp industry
• The output growth in shrimp production up to 1990s was mainly the result of the expansion of the farm area
120 100

Production (x1000 mt)

80 60 40 20 0

Historical development of shrimp industry
• • Productivity (kg/ha) of shrimp (both bagda and golda) from BW aquaculture is more or less stagnant Per ha bagda and golda procuction production averaged approximately 245 and 500 kg/ha, respectively in 2008-09
600 500 400 300 200 100

Productivity (kg/ha)

0

Causes of low and stagnant production
• Cultural practice o75% traditional extensive o24% improved extensive o1% semi-intensive • Poor land use system • Poor disease & health management
SHRIMP CULTURE SYSTEM

Traditional extensive
No Preparation No fertilization

Improved traditional extensive

Semi-intensive

Preparation Fertilization Preparation Fertilization Feeding Water management

Preparation & fertilization Formulated feeding Closed system water management Aeration

Low yield 50-250 kg/ha

PRODUCTION LEVEL Medium yield: 250-750 kg/ha

High yield 1000-2500 kg/ha

Opportunities for increasing productivity & profitability

• •

Climatic & hydrological suitability for rice-shrimp system in 60-70% total area under shrimp farming Sustainable Potential to increase production of both shrimp & rice, & profitability

Improved rice (aman)-shrimp system
Dry season
Gher preparation

Wet season

Bagda

Rice

Seedling Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

• Water depth- 60-80 cm • Single stocking: @ 3-5/m² • Yield: 350-550 kg/ha • NR: 0.75-1.00 lakh/ha (1:1.9)

Golda

GIFT

HYVs: BR 23/40/41 Yield: • Rice: 4-5 t/ha. • Fish: 200-250 kg/ha • Prawn: 70-90 kg/ha

5,000-10,000/ha at 1:1 ratio

Economic benefit of integration of aquaculture with rice (CP # 10)
90

140
80

Net profit (,000 Tk./ha)

Net return ('ooo Tk./ha)

120 100

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

68,337a
Prawn

AC
80 60
45.50 67.50

48,908b

43,160b

GIFT
Rice

40
24.64a 23.30a

37.90 13.29b

20 0 RG RGP

11.69 Control
June July August

RP

SS

DS3/2

DS2/3

Dry season shrimp

Culture treatments

Prawn stocking time

Opportunities for increasing productivity & profitability
• Techniques available for increased production by adoption of improved to semi-intensive farming system • Approximately 20,000 ha are suitable for semi-intensive farming Modified closed system (Saha et al. 2006-07) • Stocking density 9-15/sqm; yield rate of 1250 – 1885 kg/ha with FCR 1.4-1.6 and net return of Tk. 0.2 million/cycle Modified improved culture • Stocking density 5-9/sqm; yield rate 670-759 kg/ha with 2.15-2.4 and net return Tk. 0.07 – 0.15 million (Laif and Alam, 2008) • Stocking density 5/sqm; yield rate 667-811 kg/ha (Saha et al., 2008)

Opportunities for increasing productivity & profitability
HYVs are available for alternate rice-shrimp system
• In addition to local varieties (e.g., Jotabalam, Ghunshi), HYVs viz, BR23, BRRIdhan 40, BRRIdhan 41 are found suitable • BRRI dhan 40 and BRRI dhan 41 were mostly chosen by the farmers in participatory variety selection trail (Salam et al., 2010). • Under the CP#10 project for the duration of 2004-2207, seven test rice varieties responded positively to the environment, but BR-23, BRRIdhan-40 and BRRIdhan-41 yielded significantly higher (4 - 5 t/ha).

Opportunities for increasing productivity & profitability
Species diversification in shrimp farming • Shrimp-tilapia (GIFT/monosex) mixed and/or rotational (Alam et al., 2008; Saha et al., 2009) • Shrimp-Pangas-tilapia polyculture (BFRI, 2007) • Shrimp-mud crab biculture (Momtaz et al., 2007; Momtaz et al., 2010)

Research questions
• Carrying capacity of different areas of coastal zone to support traditional extensive, improved extensive & semi-intensive shrimp production systems? • Site-specific technological packages (pond preparation, soil-water quality management, in particular)? • Do shrimp farmers have access to low cost but balanced shrimp feed? • Do the shrimp farmers have knowledge for shrimp disease and health management

Research questions
• Options for improved cropping pattern/system for rotational rice-shrimp system? • Are the seeds of different potential brackishwater fish and shrimp species and their culture techniques in mono- or poly-culture available for adoption? • Finally, are the ecological, economic and social factors influencing sustainability of shrimp & shrimp-rice farming systems well-known & understood?

ACTIVITY 5 – Research
5.3 Surveys
(collaboration with CSISA & GHERS projects)

a. Brackish water aquaculture • Survey completed, analysis underway b. Homestead production systems

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Objectives:
To describe homestead farming system To understand current use of resources and productivity To identify research questions for improving homestead systems

Map of Survey Areas:

Polder 3

Polder 30

Polder 43/2/F

Sampling design
Household list for each survey area was collected from respective union parishad The sample size was calculated by using web based sample size calculator with consideration of 95% confidence level. The SPSS software was used to select the sample farmers randomly.

Sample Number
Areas Polder-30 Polder-3-High land Polder-3-Low land # samples 380 229 301 # households

5,500
4,500 5,065 6,786 21,851

Polder-43 All polders

355 1,265

Data Collection
Number of Data Enumerators: 10 (8 fishery graduate, 2 social science graduate) Orientation and training: 2-4 January 2012 Field test, group work, review and feedback incorporation in polder 30 and Khulna: 5-12 January 2012 Data Collection starts at each polder: 13 January 2012 Data collection ends: 20 March 2012

Data Entry & Analysis
MS Access based data entry format was developed by WF on 22 February . Trial data entry, feedback and modification of data entry format: 26-29 February 2012 Number of Data Entry Operator: 7 Data entry started: 1 March 2012 Data entry ended: 25 March 2012 Data Cleaning: Ongoing Preliminary Data Analysis started: 27 March

Data Entry Format

Components of Homestead Farming Production
Aquacultur e
Fruits Livestock

Vegetabl e

Homestead

Others

Poultry

Forest Trees

Percentage of households having homestead pond
70 60
% of hh

68 49 54 44 55

50 40 30 20 10 -

About 50% don’t have ponds

Asset/land under possession
180.0 160.0 140.0 120.0 100.0 80.0 60.0 40.0 20.0 0.0

Decimal/household

Forest land Livestock shade Poultry Tree covered area vegetable garden Yard Fallow Homeasted Fruit garden/trees Pond Pond (outside homestead) Rice-fish plot Crop land

1 decimal=40m2

Cost, return and profit of different farming products
450000 400000 350000

BDT/household

300000
250000 200000 150000

Wheat Vegetable Shrimp/Prawn Pulses Poultry Paddy Maize Profit Profit Profit Profit Total cost Total cost Total cost Total cost Total return Total return Total return Total return Total cost Total return Profit Livestock Fish

100000
50000 0 -50000

Polder-30

Polder-3-High Polder-3-Low land land

Polder-43

All polders

Land holding of Household
180.00

Land area (Dec/Household)

160.00 140.00 120.00 100.00

80.00
60.00 40.00 20.00 0.00

Polder-30

Polder-3-High Polder-3-Low land land

Polder-43

All polders

Nonhomestead Land area

Homestead land area

Household Homestead land area distribution

40.0

Yard Tree covered area Livestock shade

Land area (Dec/Household)

35.0 30.0

25.0
20.0 15.0 10.0 5.0 0.0

Poultry shade
Fruit garden/trees

Household Nonhomestead land area distribuion
120.0 Land area (Dec/Household) 100.0 80.0 60.0 40.0 20.0 0.0 Crop land Rice-fish plot GHERs Fallow

Forest land

Annual household income based on occupation
90000 80000 70000 60000 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 Others Fisherman Agriculture fish culture Rickshaw\Van puller

BDT

Next Steps
Data Analysis: 30 April 2012 Formulation of research question: 31 May 2012 Survey Report(1st draft): 30 June 2012 Experimental design: 30 June

Thanks

ACTIVITY 5 – Research
5.4 Field experiments & demonstrations

OUTPUT 1. Rice variety evaluation – in farmers’ fields
• • • • • • • 2011 aman – 3 polders, completed 2011/2 boro – 2 polders, in progress 10-12 varieties 3 replicates Small plots (25 m2 & 12.5 m2) Researcher monitoring (crop, water depth & salinity) Farmer PVS (participatory variety selection)

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2011 aman variety evaluation for no/low salinity
Polder 43/2/F – 25 Oct 2011 3 seeding/transplanting dates achieved Polder 30 – 26 Oct 2011

Only 1 seeding/transplanting date possible because of deep water – destruction of seedling nurseries

Improved varieties more than doubled aman rice yield on both polders 30 & 43/2/F – despite considerable water stagnation and/or submergence of the seedbed, & shorter duration
Polder 30 - Batiaghata - Aman 2011
5

1 Jul sowing
4 Grain yield (t/ha)

3

2

1

0

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2011 aman variety evaluation for rice-aquaculture in saline area
Poorly-drained/leached gher Polder 3 - 27 Oct 2011

Well-drained/leached gher

Poorer performance of seedlings transplanted at younger age (smaller)
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Farmer water (drainage) management has a huge influence on salinity for aman rice
Polder 3 - Sehara - Aman 2011
10

Good leaching/water mgt
Water salinity (dS/m)
8

Poor leaching/water mgt

36 day-old seedlings

26 day-old seedlings

6

4

2

0

62

Several varieties performed well at both salinity levels using oldish seedlings – some didn’t
Polder 3 - Sehara - Aman 2011 36 day old seedlings transpl. 20 Aug
5 Medium salinity 4 High salinity

Grain yield (t/ha)

3

2

1

0 Bd 23 Bd 40 Bd 41 Bd 44 Bd 47 Bd 52 Bd 53 Bd 54 BINA 8 IRRI line

Bd = BRRI dhan = BRRI rice variety number….

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Polder 3 - Sehara, high salinity gher - Aman 2011
5 15 Jul sowing, 36 day old seedlings transpl. 20 Aug

4
Grain yield (t/ha) 3 2 1 0

Grain yield (t/ha)

Low yields when younger seedlings transplanted in saline gher because of combination of high salinity & water too deep (>10 cm) shortly after transplanting

Polder 3 - Sehara, high salinity gher - Aman 2011
5 4 3 2 1 0 30 July sowing, 26 day-old seedlings transpl. 25 Aug

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Boro variety trials in progress - 2 locations x 6 sites in INDIA - polders 30 & 43/2/F in BGD

Sandeshkhali, India

NB surrounded by fallow land Farmer on 43/2/F “we have never seen anything like this”
43/2/F

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ACTIVITY 5 – Research
5.4 Field experiments & demonstrations

OUTPUT 2. Cropping systems
On-farm demonstrations/experiments established: • aman-rabi-aus – polders 30 & 43/2/F 2nd crop • aman-boro - polder 30 2nd crop • aman-boro-aus - polder 43/2/F 2nd crop • aman-SHRIMP - polder 3 1st crop (shrimp, shrimp+fish) • • rice-rice & rice-rabi rice-shrimp - non-replicated demonstrations - replicated small ghers
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With current polder water management practices, lower lying areas suffer from considerable water stagnation
Water depth (cm)

Polder 30 aman rice site Transplanted 25 July

Rainfall (mm) 140

40

Harvest
120

100 30

80
20

60

40 10 20

0 01/Aug/11

0

29/Aug/11

26/Sep/11

24/Oct/11

21/Nov/11
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Aman-Rabi polder 43/2/F

maize

chilli

mungbean

sunflower

water melon

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Aman-Boro polder 30
Aman 4.3-4.5 t/ha Transpl. 10 Nov

off-type? Transpl. 30 Nov

Transpl. 20 Dec

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Aman-aquaculture - polder 3

2 water depths • 30-50 cm (farmers’ practice) • 50-70 cm 3 stocking/management treatments S1 - Farmers’ practice S2 - Monculture (3 stocking/harvest per year) S3 - Polyculture (3 stocking/harvest per year) 4 replicates
Small ghers ~600 m2

70

Before

Construction

Drains

71

Nursery

Water treatment pond

2 of the 24 ghers
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S1 - Farmers’ stocking practice
Farmers’ practice documented through a series of consultation meetings with 54 farmers J F M A Penaeus monodon 2/m2 + Metapenaeus monoceros 4/m2 + Liza parsia 0.25/m2 + Rhinomugil corsula 0.25/m2 + Oreochromis spp. 0.25/m2 M J J A S O N D

Penaeus monodon 0.5/m2 Penaeus monodon 0.5/m2 Penaeus monodon 0.5/m2 Penaeus monodon 0.5/m2 Labeo rohita 0.25/m2 + Catla catla 0.25/m2 + Cyprinus carpio 0.25/m2 + Cirrhinus mrigala 0.25/m2 Aman Rice

S2 - Rotational monoculture
J F M Penaeus monodon 3/m2 (early Feb) A M J J A S O N D

Oreochromis spp. 2/m2 (nursing will be started at late may and after shrimp harvesting it will be released in the GHER) Macrobrachium_rosenbergii 2/m2 (nursing will be started at early July and after Tilapia harvesting it will be released in the GHER) Aman Rice

S3 - polyculture
J F M A M Penaeus monodon 2/sqm+ Oreochromis spp 2/sqm Penaeus monodon 1/sqm Oreochromis spp 1/sqm+ Mystus gulio 1/sqm (nursing will be started at late may and after shrimp & Tilapia harvesting it will be released in the GHER) Heteropneustes fossilis 1/sqm+ Macrobrachium_rosenbergii 1/sqm (nursing will be started at early July and after harvesting of Tilapia & Tengra it will be released in the GHER) Aman Rice J J A S O N D

• Progress to date
15 February 15-25 February 25 February - Experimental set-up completed - Liming & fertilization - Shrimp PL stocked in Nursery - Shrimp & brackish water fish stocked directly in farmers practice

March
25 March

- Shrimp transferred from nursery to
experimental ponds - Tilapia stocked in polyculture treatment

Feeding and Monitoring ongoing according to stocking treatment

All-year-round aquaculture - polder 3

3 stocking/management treatments – as for amanaquaculture S1 - Farmers’ practice S2 - Monculture (3 stocking/harvest per year) S3 - Polyculture (3 stocking/harvest per year)
4 replicates Small ghers ~1,000 m2

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Before

Water treatment pond

Hero
78

Farmers’ practice gher 27 March 2012

Improved practice gher

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Progress to date – as for aman-aquaculture system
15 February 15-25 February 25 February - Experimental set-up completed - Liming & fertilization - Shrimp PL stocked in Nursery - Shrimp & brackish water fish stocked directly in farmers practice

March
25 March

- Shrimp transferred from nursery to
experimental ponds - Tilapia stocked in polyculture treatment

Feeding and Monitoring ongoing according to stocking treatment

Issues & how we deal (dealt) with them
1. Funding uncertainty & budget cuts • Revise budgets & reduce project activities & outputs 2. Lack of a GBDC advisory committee • We raised this at the Ganges meetings in Jan, Jun, Nov 2011 & in several emails, to no avail 3. Unrealistic contract start date • We really pushed ourselves in BGD to start field work in June 2011 4. Lack of funds from CPWF until late Oct • Tremendous effort of BRRI & BRAC to begin implementation in June • Bank rolling of IRRI

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Issues (cont…)
5. Inability to implement effective early drainage treatments & to demonstrate the benefits of early establishment of rabi crops
• change site – start again – polder 30 • improve drainage system – polder 43/2/F

Aus-aman-rabi drained

Aus-aman-rabi UNdrained

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Opportunities
1. Opportunity for CPWF INNOVATION grant to implement a pilot community water management demonstration • Proposed & agreed 2. Opportunity for CIBA & CSSRI to collaborate in rice-aquaculture work in India • Proposed & agreed 2. Opportunities for co-ordination in water depth & salinity monitoring & soil salinity monitoring across the Gs • Proposed, agreed, planned & implemented 3. Opportunity for collaboration with CSISA in supporting 3 PhD scholars to work on cropping system intensification • Proposed, agreed & implemented 4. Opportunity for collaboration with CSISA in household survey work • Proposed, agreed & implemented 5. Opportunity for collaboration with FTFfish in evaluation of aquaculture & rice-aquaculture in saline areas • Proposed, agreed & implemented

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Plans for coming year
1. Build on what we have started (fantastic team, good experimental plans & initial progress) – we now have a good foundation 2. Implement community watershed management activity 3. Hope - for many things • Funding certainty & adequacy • No catastrophic weather events • Safe travel

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