Internal

WCDMA Principle

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Objectives
 Upon completion of this course, you will be able to:

 Describe the development of 3G  Outline the advantage of CDMA principle  Characterize code sequence  Outline the fundamentals of RAN  Describe feature of wireless propagation

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Contents
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 3G Overview CDMA Principle WCDMA Network Architecture and protocol structure WCDMA Wireless Fundamental Physical Layer Overview Physical Channels Physical Layer Procedure

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Different Service, Different Technology
1G 1980s Analog
AMPS TACS NMT Others

2G 1990s Digital
GSM
Technologies drive

3G IMT-2000

CDMA IS-95 TDMA IS-136 PDC

UMTS WCDMA
Demands drive

cdma 2000 TDSCDMA

3G provides compositive services for both operators and subscribers
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved

Different Service, Different Technology
1G 1980s Analog
AMPS TACS NMT Others

2G 1990s Digital
GSM
Technologies drive

3G IMT-2000

CDMA IS-95 TDMA IS-136 PDC

UMTS WCDMA
Demands drive

cdma 2000 TDSCDMA

3G provides compositive services for both operators and subscribers
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved

3G Evolution
 Proposal of 3G

 IMT-2000: the general name of third generation mobile communication system  The third generation mobile communication was first proposed in 1985 , and was renamed as IMT-2000 in the year of 1996 − Commercialization: around the year of 2000 − Work band : around 2000MHz − The highest service rate :up to 2000Kbps

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.3G Spectrum Allocation HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD. All rights reserved .

. for main band:  UL frequency channel number : 9612 ~ 9888  DL frequency channel number : 10562 ~ 10838 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.Bands WCDMA Used  Main bands  1920 ~ 1980MHz / 2110 ~ 2170MHz  Supplementary bands: different country maybe different  1850 ~ 1910 MHz / 1930 MHz ~ 1990 MHz (USA)  1710 ~ 1785MHz / 1805 ~ 1880MHz (Japan)  890 ~ 915MHz / 935 ~ 960MHz (Australia) .  Frequency channel number = central frequency×5. All rights reserved . LTD. ..

LTD.3G Application Service Error Ratio conversational streaming interactive background Time Delay HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved ..

All rights reserved .The Core technology of 3G: CDMA WCDMA CN: based on MAP and GPRS RTT: WCDMA cdma2000 CN: based on ANSI 41 and MIP RTT: cdma2000 CDMA TD-SCDMA CN: based on MAP and GPRS RTT: TD-SCDMA HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD..

3. 5. 6. 4. All rights reserved .Contents 1.. LTD. 2. 3G Overview CDMA Principle WCDMA Network Architecture and protocol structure WCDMA Wireless Fundamental Physical Layer Overview Physical Channels Physical Layer Procedure HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. 7.

. All rights reserved . LTD.Multiple Access and Duplex Technology  Multiple Access Technology  Frequency division multiple access (FDMA)  Time division multiple access (TDMA)  Code division multiple access (CDMA) HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

Multiple Access Technology FDMA TDMA Power cy en u eq Fr Power Tim e CDMA Tim e cy en qu Fre Power Time ncy Freque HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved . LTD..

. LTD. All rights reserved .Multiple Access and Duplex Technology  Duplex Technology  Frequency division duplex (FDD)  Time division duplex (TDD) HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

All rights reserved . LTD..Duplex Technology Power Time USER 2 FDD UL USER 1 DL Frequency Power Time DL UL DL DL UL USER 2 USER 1 TDD Frequency HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

4. LTD. 5. 3. 7.. 2. 3G Overview CDMA Principle WCDMA Network Architecture and protocol structure WCDMA Wireless Fundamental Physical Layer Overview Physical Channels Physical Layer Procedure HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.Contents 1. All rights reserved . 6.

LTD. All rights reserved ..WCDMA Network Architecture CN RNS RNC Iur Core Network CS Iu-CS PS Iu-PS RNS RNC Iub Node B Iub Node B CS Iu-CS PS Iu-PS UTRAN Iub Node B Iub Node B Uu UE HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

All rights reserved ..WCDMA Network Version Evolution GSM/GPRS CN WCDMA RTT CS domain change to NGN WCDMA RTT IMS HSDPA MBMS HSUPA 3GPP Rel6 3GPP Rel5 3GPP Rel99 3GPP Rel4 2000 2001 2002 2005 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD.

All rights reserved . Max UL rate:11Mbps  Features of R8  WCDMA LTE (Long term evolution) is introduced  OFDMA is adopted instead of CDMA  Max DL rate: 50Mbps. LTD.76Mbps  Features of R7  HSPA+ is introduced..WCDMA Network Version Evolution  Features of R6  MBMS is introduced  HSUPA is introduced to achieve the service rate up to 5. Max UL rate: 100Mbps (with 20MHz bandwidth) HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. which adopts higher order modulation and MIMO  Max DL rate: 28Mbps.

LTD. All rights reserved L2/MAC L1 ..Uu Interface protocol structure GC Nt DC Duplication avoidance GC C-plane signaling control Nt DC U-plane information UuS boundary control control RRC control control L3 PDCP PDCP BMC L2/PDCP L2/BMC L2/RLC RLC RLC RLC RLC RLC RLC RLC RLC MAC PHY HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

Radio Network Layer Control Plane Application Protocol Transport Network User Plane Transport Network Control Plane User Plane Data Stream(s) Transport Network User Plane Transport Network Layer ALCAP(s) Signaling Bearer(s) Signaling Bearer(s) Physical Layer Data Bearer(s) HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved . LTD..General Protocol Mode for UTRAN Terrestrial Interface  The structure is based on the principle that the layers and planes are logically independent of each other.

. All rights reserved . Radio Network Layer Control Plane Application Protocol Transport Network User Plane Transport Network Control Plane User Plane Data Stream(s) Transport Network User Plane Transport Network Layer ALCAP(s) Signaling Bearer(s) Signaling Bearer(s) Physical Layer Data Bearer(s) HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.General Protocol Mode for UTRAN Terrestrial Interface  The structure is based on the principle that the layers and planes are logically independent of each other. LTD.

Iu-CS Interface Radio Network Layer Control Plane RANAP User plane Iu UP Transport Network Layer Transport Network User Plane Transport Network Control Plane Transport Network User Plane ALCAP SCCP A MTP3-B SAAL NNI B MTP3-B SAAL NNI AAL2 PATH ATM Physical Layer HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD. All rights reserved ..

LTD..Iu-PS Interface Radio Network Layer Control Plane RANAP User plane Iu UP Transport Network Layer Transport Network User Plane SCCP MTP3-B Transport Network User Plane GTP-U C UDP IP AAL Type 5 ATM Physical Layer SAAL NNI HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved .

LTD. All rights reserved ..Iub Interface Radio Network Layer Control Plane NBAP NCP CCP Transport Network Control Plane Transport Network Layer Transport Network User Plane ALCAP Transport Network User Plane User plane Iub FP SAAL UNI SAAL UNI ATM Physical Layer AAL2 PATH HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

All rights reserved .Iur Interface Radio Network Layer Control Plane RANAP User plane Iur Data Stream Transport Network Control Plane Transport Network Layer Transport Network User Plane Transport Network User Plane ALCAP SCCP A MTP3-B SAAL NNI B MTP3-B SAAL NNI AAL2 PATH ATM Physical Layer HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. LTD.

5. All rights reserved . 4. 3. 2. 6.Contents 1. 3G Overview CDMA Principle WCDMA Network Architecture and protocol structure WCDMA Wireless Fundamental Physical Layer Overview Physical Channels Physical Layer Procedure HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. 7.. LTD.

LTD.Processing Procedure of WCDMA System Servic e Signal Sourc e Codin g Channel Coding & Interleaving Spreading Modulation Transmission bit symbo l chip modulated signal Radio Channel Servic e Signal Source Channel Decoding Decodin & Deinterleaving Despreadi ng g Demodulati on Reception Receiver HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved ..

75  A integrated speech codec with 8 source rates  The AMR bit rates can be controlled by the RAN depending on the system load and quality of the speech connections  Video Phone Service  H.324 is used for VP Service in CS domain  Includes: video codec. LTD. data protocols. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.9 5.40 AMR_6.WCDMA Source Coding  AMR (Adaptive Multi-Rate) Speech CODEC AMR_12..15 4.95 AMR_7. All rights reserved .4 (TDMA EFR) 6.2 (GSM EFR) 10.20 AMR_7.20 AMR_10.15 AMR_4. speech codec.70 AMR_5.95 7. multiplexing and etc.2 7.75 Bit Rate (kbps) 12.90 AMR_5.7 (PDC EFR) 5.

Processing Procedure of WCDMA System Transmitter Servic e Signal Sourc e Codin g Channel Coding & Interleaving Spreading Modulation Transmission bit symbo l chip modulated signal Radio Channel Servic e Signal Source Channel Decoding Decodin & Deinterleaving Despreadi ng g Demodulati on Reception Receiver HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD. All rights reserved ..

CRC  Block coding is used to detect if there are any uncorrected errors left after error correction. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD.  The cyclic redundancy check (CRC) is a common method of block coding. All rights reserved ..WCDMA Block Coding .  Adding the CRC bits is done before the channel encoding and they are checked after the channel decoding.

but brings increment of the delay  Types  No Coding  Convolutional Coding (1/2. 1/3)  Turbo Coding (1/3) No Coding 1/2 Convolutional Coding Code Block of N Bits 1/3 Convolutional Coding 1/3 Turbo Coding Uncoded N bits Coded 2N+16 bits Coded 3N+24 bits Coded 3N+12 bits HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.WCDMA Channel Coding  Effect  Enhance the correlation among symbols so as to recover the signal when interference occurs  Provides better error correction at receiver. LTD.. All rights reserved .

   ...WCDMA Interleaving  Effect  Interleaving is used to reduce the probability of consecutive bits error  Longer interleaving periods have better data protection with more delay Input bits 0010000 ...  .     ... LTD... 10 111    .  ..  ........ All rights reserved . ......         ... ..  ...    ..... 40...       Interleaving periods: 20..      ..    . or 80 ms Intercolumn permutatio n 00…010…100…10… 11 Output bits HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. .. .    .

All rights reserved .Processing Procedure of WCDMA System Servic e Signal Sourc e Codin g Channel Coding & Interleaving Spreading Modulation Transmission bit symbo l chip modulated signal Radio Channel Servic e Signal Source Channel Decoding Decodin & Deinterleaving Despreadi ng g Demodulati on Reception Receiver HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. LTD.

Correlation  Correlation measures similarity between any two arbitrary signals. All rights reserved . LTD..  Identical and Orthogonal signals: C1 C2 +1 -1 +1 -1 +1 -1 1 -1 1 ⊗ -1 1 -1 1 1 1 1 1 Correlation = 1 Identical signals C1 C2 +1 -1 +1 +1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 ⊗ Correlation = 0 1 1 1 1 Orthogonal signals -1 1 -1 1 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

. LTD. All rights reserved .Orthogonal Code Usage .Coding UE1: UE2: +1 -1 -1 +1 C1 : C2 : UE1×c1 : UE2×c2 : -1 +1 -1 +1 -1 +1 -1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 -1 +1 -1 +1 +1 -1 +1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 +1 +1 +1 +1 UE1×c1 + UE2×c2 : -2 0 -2 0 +2 0 +2 0 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

All rights reserved .Decoding UE1×C1 + UE2×C2: -2 0 -2 0 +2 0 +2 0 UE1 Dispreading by c1: Dispreading result: Integral judgment: -1 +1 -1 +1 -1 +1 -1 +1 +2 0 +2 0 -2 0 -2 0 + 4 (means + 1) - 4 (means - 1) UE2 Dispreading by c2: Dispreading result: Integral judgment: +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 -2 0 -2 0 +2 0 +2 0 - 4 (means - 1) + 4 (means + 1) HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD.Orthogonal Code Usage ..

. LTD. All rights reserved .Spectrum Analysis of Spreading & Dispreading P(f) Spreading code P(f) f Narrowband signal f Broadband signal P(f) f Noise & Other Signal Recovered signal P(f) Signal Combination Noise+Broadband signal P(f) f f Spreading code HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

Spectrum Analysis of Spreading & Dispreading Eb / No = Ec / No ×PG Powe r Ebit Eb/No Requirem ent Max allowed interference Processing Gain Max interference caused by UE and others Interference from other UE Echip HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved . LTD..

 If the service bit rate is greater. UE needs more power for this service. LTD. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. vice versa.. then the coverage of this service will be smaller.Process Gain  Process Gain chip rate Pr ocess Gain =  log(  ) bit rate  Process gain differs for each service. the process gain is smaller. All rights reserved .

Spreading Technology  Spreading consists of 2 steps:  Channelization operation.. All rights reserved . LTD. which transforms data symbols into chips  Scrambling operation is applied to the spreading signal Data symbol Chips after spreading channelization scrambling HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

4 = (1.6 = (1.-1.8.5 = (1.0 = (1.0 = (1.1.1) C ch.1.-1.1.-1.1.4..-1.3 = (1.1.2 = (1.1.0 = (1.4.-1) C ch.1 = (1.3 = (1.-1.-1.1.1.1.1.1) Cch.8.1.-1.1) C ch.1.-1) C ch.1.-1) C ch.-1) C ch.-1.1) C ch.WCDMA Channelization Code  OVSF Code (Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor) is used as channelization code C ch.8.0 = (1) Cch.-1.-1.8.1.1.1.7 = (1.-1.1.1) C ch.-1) …… SF = 1 SF = 2 SF = 4 All rights reserved SF = 8 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. .1.1.-1.1.-1.1.1.8.1. LTD.8.-1.1) C ch.1.1) C ch.1.1.-1.-1) C ch.-1.1.4.-1.1.-1.2.4.-1.2.2 = (1.8.-1.-1.-1.1 = (1.-1.-1.-1.-1.-1. -1) Cch.8.-1.1.1 = (1.

All rights reserved .2 DL Data 64 kbps DL Data 128 kbps DL Data 144 kbps DL Data 384 kbps DL SF 128 32 16 16 8 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO..2 UL Data 64 kbps UL Data 128 kbps UL Data 144 kbps UL Data 384 kbps UL SF 64 16 8 8 4 Radio bearer Speech 12.WCDMA Channelization Code  SF = chip rate / symbol rate  High data rates → low SF code  Low data rates → high SF code Radio bearer Speech 12. LTD.

channelization code ( OVSF code ) is used to separate different physical channels of one UE HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD. channelization code ( OVSF code ) is used to separate different physical channels of one cell  For uplink. All rights reserved .Purpose of Channelization Code  Channelization code is used to distinguish different physical channels of one transmitter  For downlink..

scrambling code is used to separate different UEs in one carrier HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. scrambling code is used to separate different cells in one carrier  For uplink.Purpose of Scrambling Code  Scrambling code is used to distinguish different transmitters  For downlink. All rights reserved . LTD.

 For downlink. Uplink scrambling codes are assigned by RNC. All rights reserved .  There are 224 long uplink scrambling codes which are used for scrambling of the uplink signals. 512 primary scrambling codes are used.Scrambling Code  Scrambling code: GOLD sequence.. LTD. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

.Primary Scrambling Code Group Primary scrambling code 0 Primary scrambling code 1 …… Primary scrambling code 8 Primary scrambling code 8*63 Group 0 ………… Primary scrambling codes for downlink physical channels Group 1 … Group 63 …… Primary scrambling code 8*63 +7 512 primary scrambling codes 64 primary scrambling code groups All rights reserved Each group consists of 8 primary scrambling codes HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. . LTD.

. LTD. All rights reserved .Code Multiplexing  Downlink Transmission on a Cell Level Scrambling code Channelization code 1 User 1 signal Channelization code 2 User 2 signal Channelization code 3 User 3 signal NodeB HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

All rights reserved . LTD.Code Multiplexing  Uplink Transmission on a Cell Level Scrambling code 1 Channelization code User 1 signal Scrambling code 2 Channelization code User 2 signal Scrambling code 3 Channelization code User 3 signal NodeB HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO..

All rights reserved . LTD.Processing Procedure of WCDMA System Servic e Signal Sourc e Codin g Channel Coding & Interleaving Spreading Modulation Transmission bit symbo l chip modulated signal Radio Channel Servic e Signal Source Channel Decoding Decodin & Deinterleaving Despreadi ng g Demodulati on Reception Receiver HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO..

cos(2π Ft+φ ) Frequency Shift Keying: A. LTD.cos(2π Ft+φ ) HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.cos(2π Ft+φ ) Phase Shift Keying: A..cos(2π Ft+φ ) Amplitude Shift Keying: A.Modulation Overview Data to be transmitted: Digital Input 1 0 1 0 time Basic steady radio wave: carrier = A. All rights reserved .

. LTD. All rights reserved .BPSK 1 1 Digital Input 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Information signal t NRZ coding 1 -1 t High Frequency Carrier Carrier fo 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 BPSK Waveform φ =0 φ =π φ =0 Modulated BPSK signal BPSK HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.Modulation Overview  Digital Modulation .

All rights reserved .QPSK 1 NRZ Input I di-Bit Stream Q di-Bit Stream 1 1 1 2 1 3 -1 -1 1 4 1 5 -1 -1 1 6 1 7 1 1 -1 8 -1 9 -1 -1 -1 10 -1 I Component Q Component QPSK Waveform 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD..Modulation Overview  Digital Modulation .

.Modulation Overview ±A NRZ coding ±Acos(ω ot) I(t) fo 90o QPSK NRZ coding ±A Q(t) ±Acos(ω ot + π /2) Q S :A 2 co ω + ) PK s( o φ φ 1 1 -1 -1 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. 1 -1 1 -1 π /4 7π /4 3π /4 5π /4 All rights reserved . LTD.

1 -1.1 -1.1 1..-1 -1. LTD.-1 NRZ Output 1 1 -1 1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved .Demodulation  QPSK Constellation Diagram 1 QPSK Waveform 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1.

LTD..WCDMA Modulation  Different modulation methods corresponding to different transmitting abilities in air interface R99/R4: QPSK HSDPA: QPSK or 16QAM HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved .

Processing Procedure of WCDMA System Transmitter Servic e Signal Sourc e Codin g Chann el Coding Spreading Modulation Transmission bit symbo l chip modulated signal Radio Channel Servic e Signal Source Decodin g Channel Decodin g Despreadi ng Demodulati on Reception Receiver HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD. All rights reserved ..

All rights reserved .Wireless Propagation Transmitted Signal Amplitude Transmission Loss: Path Loss + Multi-path Fading Received Signal Time HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD..

LTD. All rights reserved .Propagation of Radio Signal 2 0 15 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 Signal at Transmitter dBm Signal at Receiver dB Fading HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO..

All rights reserved .Fading Categories  Fading Categories  Slow Fading  Fast Fading HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. LTD.

. All rights reserved . LTD.Diversity Technique  Diversity technique is used to obtain uncorrelated signals for combining  Reduce the effects of fading − Fast fading caused by multi-path − Slow fading caused by shadowing  Improve the reliability of communication  Increase the coverage and capacity HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

All rights reserved .. Block interleaving  Frequency diversity  The user signal is distributed on the whole bandwidth frequency spectrum  Space diversity  Polarization diversity HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.Diversity  Time diversity  Channel coding. LTD.

All rights reserved ..Principle of RAKE Receiver Correlator 1 Correlator 2 Receive set Correlator 3 Searcher correlator s(t) s(t) Calculate the time delay and signal strength Combiner The combined signal t t RAKE receiver help to overcome on the multi-path fading and enhance the receive performance of the system HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD.

3.. 6. 5. 4. 2. 3G Overview CDMA Principle WCDMA Network Architecture and protocol structure WCDMA Wireless Fundamental Physical Layer Overview Physical Channels Physical Layer Procedure HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. 7. All rights reserved .Contents 1. LTD.

.UTRAN Network Structure CN RNS RNC Iur Core Network CS Iu-CS PS Iu-PS CS Iu-CS RNS RNC Iub NodeB Iub NodeB PS Iu-PS UTRAN Iub NodeB Iub NodeB Uu UE HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved . LTD.

LTD.Uu Interface Protocol Structure GC Nt DC Duplication avoidance GC C-plane signaling control Nt DC U-plane information UuS boundary control control RRC control control L3 radio bearer PDCPPDCP BMC L2/PDCP L2/BMC L2/RLC logical channel RLC RLC RLC RLC RLC RLC RLC RLC MAC PHY HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved L2/MAC transport channel L1 ..

RAB. RB and RL RAB RB UE RL NodeB RNC CN UTRAN HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD.. All rights reserved .

.Contents 1. 6. 3G Overview CDMA Principle WCDMA Network Architecture and protocol structure WCDMA Wireless Fundamental Physical Layer Overview Physical Channels Physical Layer Procedure HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. 4. All rights reserved . 5. 7. 3. LTD. 2.

a specific set of codes and phase HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD. All rights reserved .WCDMA Radio Interface Channel Definition  Logical Channel = information container  Defined by <What type of information> is transferred  Transport Channel = characteristics of transmission  Described by <How> and with <What characteristics> data is transmitted over the radio interface  Physical Channel = specification of the information global content  providing the real transmission resource. maybe a frequency ..

LTD. All rights reserved (PCCH) Control channel ..Logical Channel Dedicated traffic channel (DTCH) Common traffic channel (CTCH) Traffic channel Broadcast control channel (BCCH) Paging control channel Dedicate control channel (DCCH) Common control channel (CCCH) HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

Logical Channel Dedicated traffic channel (DTCH) Common traffic channel (CTCH) Traffic channel Broadcast control channel (BCCH) Paging control channel Dedicate control channel (DCCH) Common control channel (CCCH) HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. All rights reserved (PCCH) Control channel . LTD.

Transport Channel Dedicated Channel (DCH) Dedicated transport channel Broadcast channel Forward access channel (FACH) Paging channel (PCH) Random access channel (RACH) (BCH) Common transport channel High-speed downlink shared channel HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD.. All rights reserved (HS-DSCH) .

code (scrambling code. Phase HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. the different code (scrambling code or spreading code) can distinguish the channels. and each radio frame consists of 15 time slots. LTD.Physical Channel  A physical channel is defined by a specific carrier frequency.. Code.  Most channels consist of radio frames and time slots.  In UMTS system.  Two types of physical channel: UL and DL Physical Channel Frequency. All rights reserved . spreading code) and relative phase.

All rights reserved . LTD..Downlink Physical Channel  Downlink Dedicated Physical Channel (DL DPCH)  Downlink Common Physical Channel Primary Common Control Physical Channel (P-CCPCH) Secondary Common Control Physical Channel (S-CCPCH) Synchronization Channel Paging Indicator Channel Acquisition Indicator Channel Common Pilot Channel (SCH) (PICH) (AICH) (CPICH) High-Speed Physical Downlink Shared Channel (HS-PDSCH) High-Speed Shared Control Channel (HS-SCCH) HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

Uplink Physical Channel  Uplink Dedicated Physical Channel  Uplink Dedicated Physical Data Channel (Uplink DPDCH)  Uplink Dedicated Physical Control Channel (Uplink DPCCH)  High-Speed Dedicated Physical Channel (HS-DPCCH)  Uplink Common Physical Channel  Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH) HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved . LTD..

Function of Physical Channel Cell Search Channels P-CPICH--Primary Common Pilot Channel SCH--Synchronisation Channel P-CCPCH-Primary Common Control Physical Channel Paging Channels PICH--Paging Indicator Channel SCCPCH--Secondary Common Control Physical Channel NodeB Random Access Channels AICH--Acquisition Indicator Channel PRACH--Physical Random Access Channel UE Dedicated DPDCH--Dedicated Physical Data Channel Channels DPCCH--Dedicated Physical Control Channel High Speed Downlink Share Channels HS-SCCH--High Speed Share Control Channel HS-PDSCH--High Speed Physical Downlink Share Channel HS-DPCCH--High Speed Dedicated Physical Control Channel HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD.. All rights reserved .

.0 SCH 256 chips 2560 chips ac p acsi. LTD. All rights reserved .14 acs One 10 ms SCH radio frame HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.Synchronization Channels (P-SCH & S-SCH)    Used for cell search Two sub channels: P-SCH and S-SCH SCH is transmitted at the first 256 chips of every time slot  Primary synchronization code is transmitted repeatedly in each time slot Secondary synchronization code specifies the scrambling code groups of the cell  Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #14 Primary ac p SCH Secondary acsi.1 ac p i.

Secondary Synchronization Channel (S-SCH) Scrambling Code Group Group  Group  Group  Group  Group  … Group  Group  Group  #         # #      # #      #        slot number # # # # #####                                                                                                                                                                     Slot # ? Slot #? P-SCH S-SCH Slot #? acp 16 256 chips acp 6 acp 11 ……. 9 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved . Group 2 Slot 7.. 8.. LTD.

Fixed rate 30Kbps  Scrambled by the primary scrambling code  Broadcast over the entire cell  A phase reference for SCH. AICH.. Only one PCPICH per cell Pre-defined symbol sequence Tslot = 2560 chips . PICH and downlink DPCH. 256. All rights reserved . 20 bits Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot # i 1 radio frame: Tr = 10 ms Slot #14 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.Primary Common Pilot Channel (PCPICH)  Primary PCPICH  Carrying pre-defined sequence  Fixed channel code: Cch. 0. LTD. Primary CCPCH.

1)  The PCCPCH is not transmitted during the first 256 chips of each time slot 256 chips SCH T PCCPCH Data 18 bits = 2560 chips.20 bits slot Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #i 1 radio frame: T f= 10 ms Slot #14 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. fixed OVSF code (30kbps , Cch. 256. All rights reserved . LTD.Primary Common Control Physical Channel (PCCPCH)  Carrying BCH transport channel  Fixed rate.

36.. N=18.Paging Indicator Channel (PICH)  Carrying Paging Indicators (PI)  Fixed rate (30kbps). 72. PIN-1} in each PICH frame. …. All rights reserved . SF = 256  N paging indicators {PI0. LTD. or 144 288 bits for paging indication b0 b1 12 bits (undefined) b287 b288 b299 One radio frame (10 ms) HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

Secondary Common Control Physical Channel (SCCPCH)
 Carrying FACH and PCH, SF = 256 - 4

 Pilot: used for demodulation  TFCI: Transport Format Control Indication, used for describe data format

N TFCI bits

TFCI

Data N Data bits
k T slot= 2560 chips, 20*2bits (k=0..6)

Pilot N Pilot bits

Slot #0

Slot #1

Slot #i 1 radio frame: T f 10 ms =

Slot #14

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Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH)
 Carrying uplink signaling and data, consist of two parts:

 One or several preambles: 16 kinds of available preambles  10 or 20ms message part

Preamble 4096 chips

Preamble

Preamble

Message part 10 ms (one radio frame)

Preamble 4096 chips

Preamble

Preamble

Message part 20 ms (two radio frames)

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PRACH Message Structure

Data

Data Ndata bits Pilot N Pilot bits
k bits Tslot 2560 chips, 10*2 (k=0..3) =

Control

TFCI N TFCI bits

Slot # 0 Slot # 1

Slot # i

Slot # 14

Message part radio frame T = 10 ms

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. All rights reserved . LTD.PRACH Access Timeslot Structure radio frame: 10 ms 5120 chips #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 #12 #13 #14 radio frame: 10 ms Access slot #0 Random Access Transmission Access slot #1 Random Access Transmission Random Access Transmission Random Access Transmission Access slot #7 Access slot #8 Access slot #14 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

.Acquisition Indicator Channel (AICH)  Carrying the Acquisition Indicators (AI). SF = 256  There are 16 kinds of Signature to generate AI AI part a0 a1 a2 Unused part a30 a31 a32 a33 a38 a39 AS #14 AS #0 AS #1 AS #i 20 ms AS #14 AS #0 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD. All rights reserved .

All rights reserved . where SF is from 256 to 4  DPCCH carries control information generated at Layer 1.SF/4.. the OVSF code is Cch. LTD.Uplink Dedicated Physical Channel (DPDCH&DPCCH)  Uplink DPDCH and DPCCH are I/Q code division multiplexed (CDM) within each radio frame  DPDCH carries data generated at Layer 2 and higher layer.256. the OVSF code is Cch.0 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.SF.

. 10*2k bits (k=0.6) Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #i 1 radio frame: Tf = 10 ms Slot #14 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD..Uplink Dedicated Physical Channel (DPDCH&DPCCH)  Frame Structure of Uplink DPDCH/DPCCH DPDCH DPCCH Pilot Npilot bits Data Ndata bits TFCI NTFCI bits FBI NFBI bits TPC NTPC bits Tslot = 2560 chips. All rights reserved .

 DPDCH carries data generated at Layer 2 and higher layer  DPCCH carries control information generated at Layer 1  SF of downlink DPCH is from 512 to 4 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.Downlink Dedicated Physical Channel (DPDCH+DPCCH)  Downlink DPDCH and DPCCH is time division multiplexing (TDM). All rights reserved . LTD..

.6) Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #i One radio frame.. LTD.Downlink Dedicated Physical Channel (DPDCH+DPCCH)  Frame Structure of Downlink DPCH (DPDCH+DPCCH) DPDCH Data1 Ndata1 bits DPCCH TPC NTPC bits TFCI NTFCI bits DPDCH Data2 Ndata2 bits DPCCH Pilot Npilot bits Tslot = 2560 chips. 20*2k bits (k=-1. All rights reserved . Tf = 10 ms Slot #14 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

. M*10*2k bits (k=4) Slot #0 Slot#1 1 subframe: Tf = 2 ms Slot #2 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. can be configured several channels to increase data service Data Ndata1 bits Tslot = 2560 chips. LTD. All rights reserved .High-Speed Physical Downlink Shared Channel (HS-PDSCH)  Bearing service data and layer 2 overhead bits mapped from the transport channel  SF=16.

channelization code set (7 bit). LTD. All rights reserved . new data indicator (1bit). UE identity (16bit)  HS-SCCH is a fixed rate (60 kbps.such as modulation scheme (1 bit) . 40 bits Slot #0 Slot#1 1 subframe: Tf = 2 ms Slot #2 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.HARQ process number (3bit).. transport block size (6bit). SF=128) downlink physical channel used to carry downlink signalling related to HS-DSCH transmission Data Ndata1 bits Tslot = 2560 chips.High-Speed Shared Control Channel (HS-SCCH)  Carries physical layer signalling to a single UE . redundancy version (3bit).

LTD. SF=256 Tslot = 2560 chips ACK/NACK 2 × Tslot = 5120 chips CQI One HS-DPCCH subframe ( 2ms ) Subframe #0 Subframe #i 1 radio frame: Tf = 10 ms Subframe #n HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.High-Speed Dedicated Physical Control Channel (HS-DPCCH )  Carrying information to acknowledge downlink transport blocks and feedback information to the system for scheduling and link adaptation of transport block  CQI and ACK/NACK  Physical Channel.. Uplink. All rights reserved .

FACH Physical channels P-CCPCH S-CCPCH S-CCPCH PRACH S-CCPCH S-CCPCH DPDCH HS-PDSCH PRACH.Mapping Between Channels Logical channels BCCH Transport channels BCH FACH PCCH CCCH PCH RAC H FACH FACH DCH HS-DSCH RACH. All rights reserved . LTD. DTCH HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. S-CCPCH CTCH DCCH.

5. 2.Contents 1. 7. 4. LTD.. 3. 3G Overview CDMA Principle WCDMA Network Architecture and protocol structure WCDMA Wireless Fundamental Physical Layer Overview Physical Channels Physical Layer Procedure HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. 6. All rights reserved .

Synchronization Procedure .Cell Search UE uses PSC to acquire slot synchronization to a cell Slot Synchronization Frame synchronization & Code Group Identification Scrambling Code Identification UE uses SSC to find frame synchronization and identify the code group of the cell found in the first step UE determines the primary scrambling code through correlation over the PCPICH with all codes within the identified group. and then detects the P-CCPCH and reads BCH information 。 All rights reserved HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. . LTD..

Commanded preamble power Send the corresponding message part increased by Power Ramp Step Y Counter> 0 & Preamble power < maximum allowed power N Set physical status to be Nack on AICH received Set physical status to be RACH message transmitted Report the physical status to MAC Set physical status to be Nack on AICH received END HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.. LTD. All rights reserved .Random Access Procedure START Choose a RACH sub channel from available ones Get available signatures Set Preamble Retrans Max Set Preamble_Initial_Power No AI Choose a access slot again Choose a signature and increase preamble transmit power Send a preamble Get negative AI Check the corresponding AI Get positive AI Increase message part power by p-m based on preamble power The counter of preamble retransmit Subtract 1.

LTD..Transmit Diversity Mode  Application of Tx diversity modes on downlink physical channel Physical channel type Open loop mode TSTD P-CCPCH SCH S-CCPCH DPCH PICH HS-PDSCH HS-SCCH AICH – applied – – – – – – STTD applied – applied applied applied applied applied applied Closed loop mode Mode 1 – – – applied – applied – – Mode 2 – – – applied – – – – HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. All rights reserved .

b1. All rights reserved . b2..Transmit Diversity . HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO. b3 using STTD coding b0 b1 b2 b3 Antenna 1 b0 b1 b2 b3 Channel bits -b2 b3 b0 -b1 Antenna 2 STTD encoded channel bits for antenna 1 and antenna 2. LTD.STTD  Space time block coding based transmit antenna diversity (STTD)  4 consecutive bits b0.

Transmit Diversity . LTD. All rights reserved ..14 acs i.TSTD  Time switching transmit diversity (TSTD) is used only on SCH channel Slot #0 Slot #1 (Tx OFF) (Tx OFF ) Slot #2 Slot #14 acp Antenna 1 acp acs i.2 acp acs i.0 Antenna 2 (Tx OFF ) (Tx OFF) acp acs i.1 (Tx OFF) (Tx OFF) (Tx OFF) (Tx OFF) HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

LTD.. All rights reserved .Closed Loop Mode  Used in DPCH and HS-PDSCH HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.

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