Career Planning & Management

Instructor: Shahid Khan

Week - 2
1st March, 2012

APCOMS, Rawalpindi

•Human Resource Management
Definition
“HRM is concerned with the most effective use of people to achieve organizational and individual goals. It is the way of managing people at work, so that they give their best to the organization” — Invancevich and Glueck

•Career Planning & Management
Employee: Old vs. New

I will work hard for and act with loyalty towards my employer. In return I expect to be retained as an employee provided I do not act against the interests of the organization. I also expect to be given opportunities for development and promotion should circumstances make this possible.

I will bring to my work effort and creativity. In return I expect a salary that is appropriate to my contribution and market worth. While our relationship may be short term, I will remain for as long as I receive the developmental opportunities I need to build my career.

Limitations Organizational careers: the rumors of their death have been premature New psychological contracts 2. Career??? Career Planning & Management What. 3. .•Agenda 1. Advantages. 4. Need. Process.

and managed by them as part of HRM.related positions. a balanced definition can be: ‘a process of development by [an] employee along a path of experience and roles in one or more organizations’. Arnold defines career as ‘the sequence of employment.•Career What? • • • • • Psychologists define career as. a ‘property’ of organizations. careers are. Therefore. ‘The pattern of work-related experience that span the course of a person’s life’. roles. activities and experiences encountered by a person’. Hall and Lawrence from the USA regard career as ‘an evolving sequence of a person’s work experience over time’. Arthur. to a certain extent. However. .

•Career What? • The basic roles of HRM are to obtain and retain employees. and career systems deal with the latter role. of retaining (and sometimes releasing an excess of) employees. .

I will then consider public service. It will be the same with my film career. I still don't get young men standing up and saying. S. 'How can I combine career and family?' Gertrude Stein • • . Arnold Schwarzenegger Poetry is not a career. but a mug's game. I feel that the highest honor comes from serving people and your country. When I feel the time is right.•Career Planning & Management What People Think of Careers • I didn't leave bodybuilding until I felt that I had gone as far as I could go. Eliot But the problem is that when I go around and speak on campuses. No honest poet can ever feel quite sure of the permanent value of what he has written: He may have wasted his time and messed up his life for nothing. T.

but you can’t curl up with it on a cold night. and monotonous. – Fats Domino By working faithfully eight hours a day you may eventually get to be a boss and work twelve hours a day. Unfortunately. – Marilyn Monroe • A lot of fellows nowadays have a B. M. monotonous work.A.D. stupid. – Robert Frost You are what you do. If you do boring.•Career Planning & Management What People Think of Careers • A career is wonderful. or Ph.B. stupid. chances are you’ll end up boring.. they don’t have a J. – Hillary Clinton • • • . – Bob Black Don’t confuse having a career with having a life.D.O..

. Process. 3. 4.•Agenda 1. Need. Advantages. Limitations Organizational careers: the rumors of their death have been premature New psychological contracts 2. Career??? Career Planning & Management What.

Career planning and management is necessary to each and every employee in an organization. Career management is the process of designing and implementing goals.•Career Planning & Management What? • • • • Career planning is the process by which one selects career goals and the path to these goals. Career management is those personal improvements one undertakes to achieve a personal career plan. plans and strategies to enable the organization to satisfy employee needs while allowing individuals to achieve their career goals. .

The most important aspect of career planning & management is that every employee must accept his/her responsibility for development. development and educational programs provided by the organization and various institutes. .•Career Planning & Management What? • • Career Management consists of personal improvements undertaken by the individual employee. training.

To correct employee placement. To improve motivation and morale.•Career Planning & Management Need • • • • • • • To attract competent persons and to retain them in the organization. To reduce employee dissatisfaction and turnover. To provide suitable promotional opportunities. To increase the utilization of managerial reserves within an organization. To enable the employees to develop and take them to meet the future challenges. .

6.. . Relating specific jobs to different career opportunities. knowledge. Formulating career strategy covering areas of change and adjustment. and in terms of qualifications. 4. Establishing realistic goals both short-term and long-term. Analysis of career opportunities both within and outside the organization. knowledge. aptitudes etc. Analysis of career demands on the incumbent in terms of skills. aptitude etc. 7. 2. abilities.•Career Planning & Management Process 1. 3. Preparing and implementing action plan including acquiring resources for achieving goals. abilities. experience and training received etc. Analysis of individual skills. 5.

family environment. scope for self-development etc. Internal promotions. boost up their morale and also result in increased job satisfaction. This knowledge helps him select the career that is suitable to his life styles. his priorities etc.•Career Planning & Management Advantages • For Individuals: • The process of career planning helps the individual to have the knowledge of various career opportunities. upgradation and transfers motivate the employees. Increased job satisfaction enhances employee commitment and creates a sense of belongingness and loyalty to the organization. preferences. • • • • . It helps the organization identify internal employees who can be promoted.

•Career Planning & Management
Advantages

For Individuals:

Employee will await his turn of promotion rather than changing to another organization. This will lower employee turnover. It improves employee’s performance on the job by taping their potential abilities and further employee turnover. It satisfies employee esteem needs.

For Organizations:

A long-term focus of career planning and development will increase the effectiveness of human resource management.

Efficient career planning and development ensures the availability of human resources with required skill, knowledge and talent.

•Career Planning & Management
Advantages

For Organizations:

The efficient policies and practices improve the organization’s ability to attract and retain highly skilled and talent employees. The proper career planning ensures that the women and people belong to backward communities get opportunities for growth and development.

The career plan continuously tries to satisfy the employee expectations and as such minimizes employee frustration.
By attracting and retaining the people from different cultures, enhances cultural diversity.

Protecting employees’ interest results in promoting organizational goodwill.

•Career Planning & Management
Limitations

Dual Career Families: With the increase in career orientation among women, number of female employees in on increase. With this, the dual career families have also been on increase. Consequently, one of those family members might face the problem of transfer. This has become a complicated problem to organizations. Consequently other employees may be at disadvantage. Low Ceiling Careers: Some careers do not have scope for much advancement. Employees cannot get promotions despite their career plans and development in such jobs.

Solution for such problem is career shift.•Career Planning & Management Limitations • • Declining Career Opportunities: Career opportunities for certain categories reach the declining stage due to the influence of the technological or economic factors. technological changes and business environmental factors force the business firms to restructure the organizations by de-layering and downsizing. Downsizing activities result in fixing some employees. and degrading some other employees. Downsizing/De-layering and Careers: Business process reengineering. .

Advantages. Career??? Career Planning & Management What. Limitations Organizational careers: the rumors of their death have been premature New psychological contracts 2. 3.•Agenda 1. Process. 4. . Need.

•Career Planning & Management Organizational Careers • • There is a change. “Growth for the sake of growth is the ideology of the cancer cell”. With the flattening of organizations and the elimination of entire managerial layers. just for the sake of being higher in the hierarchy. does not make sense. Mounting the hierarchy is no longer the sole criterion. Realization of this notion has enabled significant changes to the meaning of career advancement. a transformation. Inner satisfaction. life balance. and a transition. • • • • . autonomy and freedom have entered the formula. (Edward Abbey) Climbing up the organizational ladder. career paths have become blurred since the 1980s and the 1990s.

•Career Planning & Management Organizational Careers • These changes mean that a different approach to the management of careers should be sought. demographic and cultural forces. is due to large economic. and the privatization of many services are translated into limited options for longterm career plans at organizational level. One aspect is the short horizons of career planning. and of psychological contracts specifically. combined with business globalization and competitiveness. one that would cope with and fit the new reality of work and working life. • • . The transformation of careers in general. ‘Just-in-time’ and business process re-engineering (mostly in manufacturing).

Need. . 3. Limitations Organizational Careers: The Rumors of their Death have been Premature New psychological contracts 2. Advantages. Career??? Career Planning & Management What. Process. 4.•Agenda 1.

the psychological contract is ‘The unspoken promise. for both organizations and employees. • . The evolution of the new psychological contracts led to a situation where there are no long-term contracts of loyalty and no mutual commitment. not present in the small print of the employment contract. Organizational commitment.•Career Planning & Management New Psychological Contracts – Evolution of Employment Relationship • In lay terms. of what *the+ employer gives. and what employees give in return’. As a result the downsizing process has had very negative outcomes. legal employment contracts in their context and expected impact. • • Organizational commitment was commonly accepted as the desired norm. and a high level of these will lead to improved performance and a tendency to remain in an org. motivational levels and satisfaction are associated with each other. • Such a contract is fundamentally different from the formal.

with the organization being expected to invest in the training and development of its employees. Others argue for the need to maintain organizational commitment even in such times for the benefits it generates to organizations. and the employee being expected to exert effort and be flexible.•Career Planning & Management New Psychological Contracts – Evolution of Employment Relationship • However. since mutual commitment has diminished or ceased to exist and the trust-based relationship has deteriorated in the industrial world. For this purpose. • • • . new ideas need to be introduced to compensate for the loss of balance in the relationship equation. We can now find ideas based on Employability. the relevance of the construct of organizational commitment has declined.

It means no more lifetime employment (or a promise of such). both are equal partners in the game. • • • . Employees do not always welcome such a transformation. It is a developmental process of progression. This means a new deal. and is not necessarily the one employees would prefer. employees will be able to find either good jobs if the company has no further need for their services. no more mutual loyalty. a career is more than a single job. The individual and the organization share duties and responsibilities. and the company will be released from a lifelong obligation to employees.•Career Planning & Management New Psychological Contracts – Evolution of Employment Relationship • Through the concept of employability. Now. nor the one that organizations would easily adopt. a single position or a single role. which is different from that of mutual commitment.

career prospects. conformity. • • . assume added responsibility.•Career Planning & Management New Psychological Contracts – Evolution of Employment Relationship • The typical traditional deal was: employees offer loyalty. employees offer long hours. The archetype was a full-time career with a single employer. the fact of having a job. Both sides based the relationship on ‘trust’. employers offer security of employment. whereas employers offer high pay. reward for performance and above all. training and development and care in trouble. commitment. To a certain extent employees can easily understand and accept this type of relationship. Under the new deal. provide broader skills and tolerate change and ambiguity. When there is readiness for changes and adjusted expectations there will not be a process of disillusionment and a feeling of betrayal on the part of employees.

Vertical: Breaking down vertical barriers is crucial since hierarchical bureaucracies tend to restrict the flow of information. are reluctant to respond to changing environments and are inflexible in both their thinking and their actions. according to Ashkenas et al. According to Ashkenas et al. . Horizontal: Breaking down horizontal barriers means. suggest that breaking down barriers is one of the ways in which organizations can struggle to survive and flourish.•Career Planning & Management New Psychological Contracts – Boundaryless Orgs & Careers • • Boundaryless Organizations: Ashkenas et al. • 1. 2.. there are FOUR types of barriers to overcome. eliminating the traditional barriers between the conventional functions and operations of organizations.

in particular. Boundaryless Careers: The boundaryless organization is the site of the boundaryless career. etc. government agencies. • • • These four ‘deviations’ from the traditional type of organization have a direct impact on individuals and. on organizational career systems.•Career Planning & Management New Psychological Contracts – Boundaryless Orgs & Careers 3. breaking down geographical boundaries is reflected at both the national and the international levels or in the form of ‘virtual organizations’. but working with joint ventures. 4. Geographical: Lastly. blurs the boundaries. . customers. Environmental: Breaking down the barriers between the organization and the environment or other organizations is complex. suppliers.

• The elimination of the barriers between organizational functions opens up new career paths that cross boundary lines within organizations. the new deal does not represent a full revolution. • • Finally. • . High levels of interactivity with the environment. but a widespread evolution.g. the global realm offers a wide range of opportunities to grow and develop anywhere. including competitors. enable new practices (e. There is exaggeration in the new deal and is criticized also.•Career Planning & Management New Psychological Contracts – Boundaryless Orgs & Careers • The breaking down of hierarchical bureaucracies demolishes the old-style system of a career ladder. all in all. from home to the other side of the world. But. secondments). strict rules for promotion and upward movement.

•Career Planning & Management New Psychological Contracts . at early age in career Organization Series. at different age stages Individual Career horizon (workplace) Career horizon (time) Employer expects/Employee gives: Single organization Long Loyalty and commitment Several organizations Short Long-time working hours Employer gives/Employee expects: Job security Investment in employability Progress criteria Advancement according to tenure Advancement according to results and knowledge Success means Winning the tournament i. company specific. generalist .Boundaryless Orgs & Careers Aspect Environmental characteristic Traditional deal Stability Transformed deal Dynamism Career choice made Main career responsibility lies with: Once. Inner feeling of achievement Training On-the-job. sometimes ad hoc . progress on the hierarchy ladder Formal programs.e.

Limitations Organizational Careers: The Rumors of their Death have been Premature New psychological contracts 2. 4. Advantages. Need. Career??? Career Planning & Management What.•Agenda 1. . Process. 3.

Thank You Questions??? .

2012 APCOMS.Career Planning & Management Instructor: Shahid Khan Week – 3 8th March. Rawalpindi .

taking into account not merely the organization.e. Conceptualization (i. Interactive nature in the sense of relationship between the organization and the individual. political and economic environment) 2. They outline four properties they feel an established career model should possess: 1. but also the business. Subjectivity (rather than normativity) for the meaning of career success 4.•Career Planning & Management Balancing Individual & Organizational Needs Herriot and Pemberton offer the model presented in next slide. Cyclical and processual nature of the model 3. • .

•Career Planning & Management Balancing Individual & Organizational Careers .

Rawalpindi .Career Planning & Management Shahid Khan Week – 4 20th December. 2011 APCOMS.

The general model of performance appraisal. Early motivational researchers were aware that different people with roughly equal work abilities could be paid the same amount of money and yet have quite different levels of motivation and performance.•Managing the Performances Concept • In the absence of a carefully structured system of appraisal. could also have a major influence. people will tend to judge the work performance of others. including subordinates. In the 1950s in the United States. began from that time. As a result. It was found that other issues. the traditional emphasis on reward outcomes was progressively rejected. such as morale and self-esteem. informally and arbitrarily. as it is known today. • . The human inclination to judge can create serious motivational. the potential usefulness of appraisal as tool for motivation and development was gradually recognized. naturally. ethical and legal problems in the workplace.

performance appraisal is arguably the most important management tool a firm employer has at his disposal. In contrast. the focus is on blame rather than on helping the employee assume responsibility for improvement.•Managing the Performances Concept • • • After employee selection. Strengths of the negotiated performance appraisal are its ability to promote candid two-way communication between the supervisor and the person being appraised and to help the latter take more responsibility for improving performance. By so doing. The performance appraisal. can help to fine tune and reward the performance of present employees. the supervisor acts more as a judge of employee performance than as a coach. in the traditional performance appraisal. when properly carried out. . unfortunately.

Performance Appraisal .•Managing the Performances Performance • • • • • Actual Results vs. 2. Performance planning where goals and objectives are established. 3. Performance management and improvement can be thought of as a cycle: 1. could constitute the performance improvement zone. Performance coaching where a manager intervenes to give feedback and adjust performance. Desired results. where Actual is less than Desired. Any discrepancy.

demotion. (Organizations need to be aware of laws in their country that might restrict their capacity to dismiss employees or decrease pay). By the same token.•Managing the Performances Performance Appraisal • “Performance appraisal is a formal. dismissal or decreases in pay. structured system that compares employee performance to established standards. Successful appraisal methods have clearly defined and explicitly communicated standards or expectations of employee performance on the job. and promotions. • • . bonuses. or in extreme cases. Assessment of job performance is shared with employees being appraised through one of several primary methods of performance appraisals”. appraisal results are used to identify the poorer performers who may require some form of counseling. The appraisal results are used to identify the better performing employees who should get the majority of available merit pay increases.

selection.•Managing the Performances Performance Appraisal Why? • (1) validate and refine organizational actions (e. and • (2) provide feedback to employees with an eye on improving future performance. training.. culture. policies etc). .g.

•Managing the Performances Performance Appraisal .

one is lost and the other is out looking for it.•Managing the Performances Performance Appraisal Results "He's got two brains cells.“ CAREFUL THINKER: Won’t take decision LOYAL: Can’t get another job USES LOGIC ON DIFFICULT JOBS: Get someone else to do it A KEEN ANALYST: Thoroughly confused EXCEPTIONALLY GOOD JUDGEMENT: Lucky CAREER MINDED: Back stabber JOB IS HIS FIRST PRIORITY: Too ugly to get a date . you'd get change. he only gargled.“ "If you give him a penny for his thoughts.“ "Some drink from the fountain of knowledge.

•Managing the Performances Controversy Controversy • Linking performance appraisals with pay raises and rewards. at times. soured relationships and productivity declines. mix socially. giving an appraisal result that has the direct effect of negating a promotion is another. Suggesting that a subordinate needs to brush up on certain work skills is one thing. . leading to workplace disruption. • Many appraisers feel uncomfortable with the combined role of judge and executioner. They work together on a daily basis and may. and are typically in a direct subordinate-supervisor relationship. Appraisers often know their appraisees well. The result can be resentment and serious morale damage.

It has also been claimed that appraises themselves are inclined to believe that appraisal results should be linked directly to reward outcomes—and are suspicious and disappointed when told this is not. decent and consistent reward outcomes. Performance Appraisal and Organizational Development . Performance appraisal—whatever its practical flaws—is the only process available to help achieve fair.•Managing the Performances Controversy Controversy • • • There is a critical need for remunerative justice in organizations. The advocates of linking PA to reward say that organizations must have a process by which rewards—which are not an unlimited resource—may be openly and fairly distributed to those most deserving on the basis of effort & results.

Ends Team’s Performance Reward .g. To keep development separate from performance and salary discussions. development reviews may be held at other times e..•Managing the Performances Controversy Controversy • • • • Performance reviews can be regarded as learning events. not least their managers) to develop themselves. anniversary of joining an organization. Objectives and Performance Standards (also MBO) Means vs. in which individuals can be encouraged to think about how and in which ways they want to develop. This can lead to the drawing up of a Personal Development Plan (PDP) setting out the actions they propose to take (with the help of others.

immediate subordinate. it can be measured with respect to attaining output. self)? Would you study differently or exert a different level of effort for a college course graded on a pass-fail basis than for one in which letter grades from A to F are used? 360 Degree Feedback . Potential or Competence Who should appraise (immediate boss.•Managing the Performances Performance Appraisal • • • • • Measurement: Managers performance may be measured with respect to meeting objectives. Performance vs. peers. But of production staff.

•Managing the Performances Performance Appraisal – 360 Degree Feedback .

•Managing the Performances Performance Appraisal Confidentiality??? .

etc. . Bob is a dedicated individual who has absolutely no *vanity in spite of his high accomplishments and profound *knowledge in his field.•Managing the Performances Performance Appraisal Results • • The Boss asked for a letter describing Bob Smith for his performance appraisal: *Bob Smith. A memo was soon sent following the letter: That idiot was reading over my shoulder while I wrote the report sent to you earlier today. Bob works independently. Kindly read only the odd numbered lines (1. my assistant programmer. Often Bob takes extended *measures to complete his work. sometimes skipping coffee *breaks. I duly recommend that Bob be *promoted to executive management.) for my true assessment of him. and a proposal will be *executed as soon as possible. and he always *finishes given assignments on time. Consequently. without *wasting company time talking to colleagues. Bob never *thinks twice about assisting fellow employees. 5.. the type which cannot be *dispensed with. I firmly believe that Bob can be *classed as a high-caliber employee. can always be found *hard at work in his cubicle.. 3.

•Managing the Performances Performance Appraisal • • • • • • • • • Process or Steps: To Improve Performance Appraisal: Focus on behavior rather than traits Keep a diary of incidents Focus more on future than past???? Link trainings to Performance Appraisal Use multiple evaluators (for subjectivity) Separate compensation conversation from PA Train evaluators .

Rawalpindi . 2011 APCOMS.Career Planning & Management Shahid Khan Week – 5 29th December.

Input for Succession Planning 3. competency 2. .•Agenda Week 3 1. Potential Appraisal – What? Why? How? Philip Model. Input for Succession Planning Compensation Strategy & Structure – What? Why? How? Philip Model. Competency Mapping .What? Why? Competence.

the ability to make effective • presentations. . potential characteristics.g. showing flexibility. Motives: A fundamental and often unconscious driver of thoughts and behavior for example concern for excellence. HR etc). or • • • • to negotiate successfully). Competencies exist at different levels of personality. or motive demonstrates by various observable behaviors that contribute to outstanding performance in a job. Behavior: Action of a person in a given situation. The various levels are: • Knowledge: Information that an individual has in a particular area (e-g. Traits: A typical way of behaving such as taking initiatives. Accounting.. Skills: An individual’s ability to do something well (e.•Managing the Performances Competency • Competency is an underlying skill.

. • • Competency-based HR If it is possible to define the behaviors that create exemplary employees... and you can create a model to codify that. PA. Knowledge and skills (essential competencies) are easy to develop so training is cost effective. recruitment) of the organization. hire those who “have it”. train those who don’t have it on how to “have it”. . you can promote those who “have it”. job evaluation. training.•Managing the Performances Competency Mapping • Personal characteristics (differentiating competencies) are hard to develop and it is more cost effective to select people having the desired personality traits. thus drive your organization to achieve a higher level of success. compensate those who exhibit behaviors aligned against the model. • Competency Mapping is a process of identifying key competencies (through job experts or past successful employees in similar position) for an organization and/or a job and incorporating those competencies throughout the various processes (i.e.

•Managing the Performances Maximizing Potential and how to unearth employee strengths • • People get hired for what they know and are fired for how they behave. you’ve taken the person out of the exact environment in which he or she succeeds and likes—possibly reducing his or her success in the new position. Don’t focus too much on weaknesses but on possibilities and potential. you cannot fully uncover a person’s strengths without his or her input. Tap into what he or she discerns as his or her strengths by asking what he or she enjoys most. • . Also. Ask the employee what he/she likes to do: There’s a funny equation applied to many promotions: People who excel at a specific job are promoted to management level. and why. • Make time for positive recognition with examples to make them realize what is valued more and to convert “can’t do” to “can do”. Often. and in what role he or she believes she or he is of most value to the organization.

. These may be areas where the employee has not had a real opportunity to demonstrate the potential ability. yet more of his or her strengths would blossom in another role. Allow the employee to test-drive a new role: May be you’ re seeing the employee in his or her specific role.•Managing the Performances Maximizing Potential and how to unearth employee strengths • • Identify ways to apply existing strengths in new ways: Thomas Edison saw sewing-thread as a light bulb filament. This test-drive might spark new ideas about increased value from the employee. and allow you to see where a role-shift may make sense for the company.

A large part of the attributes needed to perform excellently in a future job which people call potential. It is hidden below the surface”. Unleashing the iceberg may be the difficult. what you see above the surface (Performance) is only a small part. People are like icebergs.•Managing the Performances Maximizing Potential and how to unearth employee strengths • • Potential Appraisal: Measuring an employees potential in order to gauge today what he could achieve tomorrow may be the stiffest challenges ever posed to the science of performance appraisal. . Not only does potential appraisal help in catching high fliers but snapshot of breeding CEOs for the corporate. but it is also critical for corporate survival. is not immediately visible.

Verbal behavior 3. Control 4. Entrepreneurial orientation. Negotiating power. Interpersonal effectiveness: Network directedness. Achievement motivation: Drive. Sense of reality 2. Risk-taking. very good. Personal influences. Business orientation. Individual effectiveness. Conceptual effectiveness: Vision. Stability . good/adequate. Operational effectiveness: Result orientation. Professional. Innovativeness. weak and insufficient— to evaluate employees on the four broad attributes of: 1. ambition.•Managing the Performances Maximizing Potential and how to unearth employee strengths • • • • • Potential Appraisal: The potential appraisal system normally uses a five point grading scale—excellent.

•Managing the Performances Maximizing Potential and how to unearth employee strengths Fig: Philip Model (Matrix Model) .

High skilled but limited capability to grow beyond their current job–profile they constitute 70 to 75% of the companies employees. However. These are the race horses. The company constantly recognizes their limitations and look after their needs. if location. boss. To tap their potential such employees are given a new scenario to work in and are closely monitored. they are reclassified as question marks and the separation process is initiated. If those efforts fail. The company asks such employees to improve their performance levels. • High potential–high performance: These are the star performers.•Managing the Performances Maximizing Potential and how to unearth employee strengths • Low potential-low performance: It defines these employees as question marks. • Low potential–high performance: Defined as the solid citizens’. . • High potential–low performance: These are the problem children. or job profile changes. in 8 out of 10 cases. they groom to become star performers. if the performance levels still remain low. it works towards a planned separation. They are to be kept engaged with complex assignments all the time and groomed to take up the top positions in the organization. Or they will leave.

.•Managing the Performances Maximizing Potential and how to unearth employee strengths • Potential appraisal along with performance appraisal provide a reasonable input to SUCCESSION PLANNING.

Rawalpindi . 2011 APCOMS.Career Planning & Management Shahid Khan Week – 6 29th December.

and thus the definition of internal career success depends on the inner feelings and values of the person. income and other monetary rewards). Success in an external career is assessed mainly in terms of hierarchy level and pace of progress on such a ladder. An internal career is subjective. professional qualifications and financial success (i. Evaluating career success by means of external evaluation is more objective than internal career measurement. occupational status). External Careers: how other people and organizations perceive a person’s career. but it still depends on the particular observer’s viewpoint.g.•Individual Career Models Internal External & Organizational Careers • • • Internal Careers: a person’s self-perception about his or her own career.e. . social status (e.

it is people who have careers. Career progress or advancement can be quite objective and measurable within a single organization or between organizations with equivalent promotion scales (e. People will plan and manage their careers. We now look at individual career choice models. not always according to an organization’s plans and schemes. Here comparisons might be Impractical or irrelevant. in terms of the positions and the roles they fill during their working life. . It may be most appropriate to consider careers as being under ‘mutual ownership’ – that of people and organizations.•Individual Career Models Internal External & Organizational Careers • Organizational Career: is a path people move along. However. such comparisons are less clear or may even be meaningless for dynamic careers. (For example is the CEO of an organization employing 1000 people ‘higher’ than a Vice President who manages 3000 employees in a company of 10 000?) • While organizations retain career systems through which they plan and manage people’s careers. navy).g. as moves involve multiple transitions. army v.

•Individual Career Models Holland’s RAISCE Model • Hand outs .

.•Individual Career Models Protean Career • • From Greek “Proteus” god (changes appearance at his own will) Individual is the master of his career.

first to get what you want. Shaw) • There are two things to aim at in this life. organization or specific job you have always dreamed of does not necessarily mean that you will be happy or even satisfied with your career once you have achieved it. • • how far doing so helped to fulfill your needs. (G.B. One is to lose your heart’s desire.•Individual Career Models Career Success • There are two tragedies in life. This sobering process is most apparent in jobs such as nursing (with high proportion of nurses leaving the profession). The other one is to gain it. reaching what you aimed for. and. after that. This takes us back to Shaw again: obtaining entrance to the profession. . and second. to enjoy it. Only the wisest of mankind achieve the second. (Logan Pearsall Smith) Criteria of career success is different for different people but mostly: The criteria for evaluating success can be. first.

Who has the greater success – the one who reached the higher rank or the one who surpassed his goal? Should success be measured externally or internally? . One has set himself the goal of becoming a Captain.•Individual Career Models Career Success • • • • Think of two young men opting for a career in the army. In the end he manages to reach the rank of Major. but the first one has exceeded his target whereas his friend has failed to achieve his. His friend set himself the target to become a LieutenantGeneral. In the end he is promoted to Colonel. The rank of the first is lower than that of the second.

•Individual Career Models Derr’s Framework of Career Success • • Traditional Measures: formal education. (d) Getting free: Being motivated by a need for autonomy and the ability to create one’s own work environment. (c) Getting high: Being inspired by the nature and content of the work performed. (b) Getting secure: Having a solid position within the organization. . Derr’s Measures: (a) Getting ahead: Motivation derives from the need to advance both in professional standing and up the organizational ladder. lifelong employment with job security and hierarchical progress. (e) Getting balanced: Attaching equal or greater value to non-work interests.

•Individual Career Models Derr’s Framework of Career Success .

•Individual Career Models Desert Generation • Hand Outs .

Career Planning & Management Shahid Khan Week – 6 29th December. 2011 APCOMS. Rawalpindi .

leave some money for savings (perhaps for retirement) and leisure. keep up with inflation. and are fair. increase over time.•Compensation Strategy & Structure Compensation • • • • • Compensation is the outcome (rewards) employees receive in exchange for their work Wage vs. An expectation that wages cover basic living expenses. exempt) Salary vs. . but because it’s likely to be the primary reason the employees work for the firm. Benefits The compensation package offered a firm’s employees is important not only because it costs money. Compensation packages with good pay and benefits can help attract and retain the best employees. Salary: (non-exempt vs.

Ensure that rewards and salary costs adjust to changes in market rates or organizational change. Adjust pay structures to reflect inflationary effects. .•Compensation Strategy & Structure Objectives • • • • • • • Attract suitable staff. Develop reward structures that are equitable with consistent and fair pay relationships between differently valued jobs. responsibility. Comply with legal requirements. Reward performance. and loyalty. Retain qualified personnel.

Secure: Pay should be enough to help employees feel secure. benefits & other rewards should provide a reasonable total rewards package. Compensation policy depends on certain criteria as below: Adequate: Minimal Governmental. Incentive providing: Pay should motivate effective and productive work. 2. in the line with his or her effort. 6. abilities. 7. Cost-effective: The pay should not be excessive than what organization can afford. Equitable: Each person should be paid fairly. 4.•Compensation Strategy & Structure Compensation Policy • 1. union and managerial levels should be met. 3. 5. Acceptable to the employee: . Balanced: Pay.

Organizational Culture • Other Factors: National Culture Individualism/Collectivism: The individualistic cultures (US) adopt compensation strategies that reward individual performance. Foreign Demand.•Compensation Strategy & Structure Factors affecting Compensation Package • External Factors: Industry. . the compensation of employees is on the basis of group performances recognize the importance of employee affiliations with groups. Long Term Goals. Labor Market • Internal Factors: Financial Conditions. Competitors. Organizational Product Life Cycle. In collectivistic society (Japan). HRM Application. acquisition of skills and knowledge.

• Where the uncertainty avoidance is high. Greece etc.). employers probably use incentive pay programs. value of stability and routines and the risk aversion are the hallmarks of high uncertainty avoidance (Italy. . • Fear of random events. welcoming random events. facing challenges and seeking risks characterize by the low uncertainty avoidance. employers normally emphasize fixed pay than variable pay.•Compensation Strategy & Structure Factors affecting Compensation Package Other Factors: National Culture • Uncertainty Avoidance: methods by which a particular society deals with risk and the instability of their members. When the low uncertainty avoidance (Singapore and Denmark). On the other hand.

“Masculinity” favors material possession (Germany).•Compensation Strategy & Structure Factors affecting Compensation Package Other Factors: National Culture • Power Distance: The extent to which people accept a hierarchical system or power structure in the companies (status consciousness) • • Masculinity-Femininity: It refers to whether masculine or feminine value is dominant in the society. Product Life Cycle: Growth. Decline • . While that of feminine culture will focus on medical. The compensation policies of the company of masculine culture are likely to focus mostly on material benefits. children care etc as well. “Feminity” encourages caring and nurturing behavior (Finland and Norway). Maturity.

group. Incentives are typically given in addition to the base wage. Individual incentive plans encourage competition among employees. They can be paid on the basis of individual. group or plant-wide incentive plans encourage cooperation and direct the efforts of all employees toward achieving overall company performance.•Compensation Strategy & Structure Pay Plans • • • Incentive Compensation Plan: Incentive compensation pays proportionately to employee performance. . or plant-wide performance.

not for the job they hold. their wage rate goes up until they have mastered all the skills. . As employees gain one skill and then another. Team Based Compensation Plan: Recognizing the importance of close cooperation and mutual development in a work group (eg.•Compensation Strategy & Structure Pay Plans • • • Skill/Knowledge based Compensation Plan: Skill-based pay is a system that pays employees based on the skills they possess or master. self-managed teams). companies want to encourage employees to work as a team by offering pay based on the overall effectiveness of the team.

It increases even the base pay—so-called merit increases—to reflect how highly employees are rated on a performance evaluation. Other incentives and bonuses are calculated based on this new merit pay. incentives and bonuses are extra rewards given in appreciation of their extra efforts.•Compensation Strategy & Structure Pay Plans • • Performance based Compensation Plan: Traditionally. Pay-for-performance is a new movement away from this entitlement concept. While base pay was given to employees regardless of performance. . resulting in substantially more benefit for highly ranked employee performance. pay was considered entitlement that employees deserve in exchange for showing up at work and doing well enough to avoid being fired.

) can be utilized as well. The job evaluation methods give us the inputs for developing an organizational over all pay structure. It can be using a single rate structure in which all the employees perform the same work receive the same pay. . reports etc.•Compensation Strategy & Structure Pay Structure • • • • The way the organization structures its compensation packages is primarily a matter of organizational philosophy though the market trends play an important role. that is based on the time for which an individual has been associated with the organization. Or the second method is tenure based. Besides that other sources of information (surveys.

working conditions. or pay grades (based on some grading systems). responsibility. Through job evaluations.•Compensation Strategy & Structure Job Evaluations & Market Considerations (Going Rates) • • • • • The job evaluation is a set of systematic procedures to determine the relative worth of jobs within the organization. . a detailed list of compensable factors needs to be articulated.” Each job might be given its own rate. skill. jobs in the firm may be rated according to their relative “importance. and so on. or jobs of comparable importance may be grouped into a single wage classification. Job evaluations compare positions in an organization with respect to such factors as effort. For the job evaluation to be useful.

•Compensation Strategy & Structure
Job Evaluations & Market Considerations (Going Rates)

Job Evaluations are subjective and remain controversial because they have often been found to contain gender biases. In practice, results of job evaluations are often compromised by market considerations. For example, no matter what the firm’s job evaluation may indicate, it is unlikely that the firm will be able to pay wages drastically lower (or higher) than the going rate (due to competition or legal regulations). EXECUTIVES PAY:

•Compensation Strategy & Structure
Pay Equity
• •

• •

Internal Equity, External Equity, Cross Industry Equity Employees will act to restore equity if they perceive an imbalance. In evaluating the fairness of their pay, employees balance the ratio of their inputs (e.g., work effort, skills) and outcomes (e.g., pay, privileges) against those of their coworkers. Workers may thus experience guilt if they feel overcompensated, or they may feel anger if they perceive that they are being under-compensated. The greater the perceived disparity, the greater the tension. In order to relieve this tension, employees may seek balance in a number of ways:

•Compensation Strategy & Structure
Pay Equity

Modify input or output (e.g., if underpaid, a person may reduce his efforts or try to obtain a raise; if overpaid, he/she may increase efforts or work longer hours without additional compensation.

Adjust the notion of what is fair (e.g., if underpaid, a worker may think of himself as being the
recipient of other benefits—such as doing interesting work; if overpaid, an employee may come to believe he deserves it).

Change source of equity comparison (e.g., an employee who has compared himself with a promoted

co-worker may begin to compare himself with another worker)

Attempt to change the input or output of others (e.g., asking others not to work so hard or to work harder).

• •

Withdraw (e.g., through increased absenteeism, mental withdrawal or quitting). Force others to withdraw (e.g., trying to obtain a transfer for a co-worker or force him to quit).

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