Written by: Stella Ting-Toomey

a communication professor at California State University. Fullerton “Face” according to sociologist Erving Goffman is “the positive social value of a person effectively claims for her/himself by the line others assume s/he has taken during a particular contact.Face .” .Negotiation Theory (FNT) was developed by Stella Ting-Toomey (1985).

. Born in Hong Kong  She move to the U. in the summer of 1972. to attend the University of Iowa. 2.S. universities 1.S.  She was attende at three U. 3. Iowa New Jersey Southern California  Professor at California State University at Fullerton (CSUF)  Mother to a biracial child.

 Deals with how people gain “positive” or “negative” face. Concept that deals with how different people and cultures place importance and value on identity and how conflict is handled by those within those cultures. .  Idea of “face” as representative of the identity a person has and how the culture someone is in places importance on the individual and society. based on how others perceive them.

Two-thirds of the world’s  are born into collectivist cultures. • Three important differences between the two. while just under 2. Perceive one-self Personal goals Duty 1. ii. i.• Represent the two major differences between the Collectivist and Individualistic cultures. iii. One-third of the world’s • population lives in the individualistic culture .

Collectivistic  A collectivist culture is a people tend to view themselves as members of groups and usually consider the needs of the group to be more important than the needs of individuals a) b) c) d) Families Work units Tribes Nations .

 Freewheeling • our self-concern with individual rights. not group responsibilities  Moral stance • Attitude or view point that helps you make a decision .

or connected to others. People within a culture differ on the relative importance they place on individual selfsufficiency or group solidarity 1. Interdependent Independent  Step to which people conceive of themselves as relatively independent from. . 2.

 Collectivism emphasizes the interdependence of every human being.  Political  Religious  Economic  Social outlook  Interdependent self-construal define themselves in terms of their relationships with others. .

 Concept of self is prevalent within individualistic cultures      self-reliance autonomy competition personal control individual goals .

Relational reality of self-image  Overlap shows that an Individual might have more interdependent than a person raised in Collectivistic with a relative high independent self-construal. .

 Every culture is always negotiating face. high context cultures.  FNT states that people from individualistic. low context cultures interact differently from collectivistic. .


Self-Face Maintenance Collectivistic 1. Public self-image that every member of society wants to claim for himself/herself. Individualistic 1.  Differs depending on differences in cultural and individual identities. Other-Face Maintenance . Mutual-Face Maintenance 2.

protecting the autonomy of another person Face-giving .protecting your own need for inclusion .Face-restoration .protecting another's need for inclusion Face-assertion .protecting your own autonomy Face-saving .

 FNT maintains that intercultural conflict can be reduced by recognizing. and adapting to the differences with another's culture. . accepting. The ways which various cultures view face and their individual role in face-work will determine the approach to conflict management. understanding.

bargaining Avoiding.withdrawing Integrating.competing .accommodating Compromising.Obliging.problem-solving Dominating.

. and collectivistic cultures prefer other oriented face-work. Communication in all cultures is based on maintaining and negotiating face. individual. collectivistic and small vs. relational.  Behavior is also influenced by cultural variances.  Differences in individualistic vs.  Competence in intercultural communication is a culmination of knowledge and mindfulness. and situational factors.  Face is problematic when identities are questioned. large power distance cultures profoundly shape face management.  Individualistic cultures prefer self oriented face-work.

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