What is Progressivism?
 Progressive means “making use of or interested in new ideas, findings, or opportunities”  “An educational theory marked by emphasis on the individual child, informality of classroom procedure, and encouragement of self-expression”  It is a curriculum that is jointly directed by teachers focusing on the student & their needs. Progressivism encourages students to explore & investigate information, too deepen & broaden their understanding.

 The teacher is an intellectual guide or facilitator in the problem solving process.  School is a democratic society in itself, preparing students for community life.  Believe that education should focus on the whole child rather than on the content or the teacher.  Students should test ideas by active experimentation.  Effective teacher provide experiences so that students can learn by doing.

Proponents JOHN DEWEY(1859-1952) MARIETTA JOHNSON(1864-1938) WILLIAM HEARD PATRICK(1871-1965) .

1997) Father of Progressivism .John Dewey (1859-1952) “Education is life itself ” .John Dewey “Arguably the most influential thinker on education in the twentieth century” –(Smith.

2005):  How We Think  Democracy and Education  Experience and Education  A Common Faith .  Some important books written by Dewey (Olson. Vermont  Died on June 2. 2007)  John established a laboratory school at the University of Chicago in 1903.Life of John Dewey  Born on October 20. 42). 1859 in Burlington. At this school he practiced his educational theories (Brewer. 1952 at age 92 (Field.

. but the specific topics to be studied to meet those goals.  Teachers are responsible for achieving the goals of the school.  Active curriculum should be integrated. rather than divided into subject-matter segments (Brewer. 43). cannot be determined in advance because they should be of the interest of the children (Brewer. 42).Dewey believed…  Curriculum should be based on students’ interests and should involve them in active experiences (Brewer. 43).

2005) * He believed that students should be actively involved in real-life tasks and challenges.Dewey’s beliefs and concepts *Dewey believed that learning was active and schooling was unnecessarily long and restrictive (Neill. .

3. is absolutely essential to the intelligent direction of his development. rather than as task-masters. . Teachers will inspire a desire for knowledge. 4. Interest shall be the motive for all work. Scientific study of each pupil’s development. according to the social needs of the community. mental. The conduct of the pupils shall be governed by themselves. 2. physical. and will serve as guides in the investigations undertaken. social and spiritual. inspired by Dewey’s ideas.The Progressive Education Association. later organized his doctrines as follows: 1.

All progressive schools will look upon their work as of the laboratory type. Greater attention is paid to the child’s physical needs. with greater use of the out-of-doors. play and other extra-curricular activities. giving freely to the sum of educational knowledge the results of their experiments in child culture. Cooperation between school and home will fill all needs of the child’s development such as music.5. 6. dancing. 7. .

Mrs. no homework. . Alabama.MARIETTA JOHNSON(1864-1938)  Marietta Johnson was an extraordinary teacher with a simple mission To make the world a better place by educating its children to love learning. contemporary Rudolf Steiner and Maria Montessorri. and she did not believe any child should be allowed to fail. Her school had no examinations.  A proponent of a unique philosophy of progressive education. Johnson founded the School of Organic Education in Fairhope.

 Should follow their own internal time tables rather than adults scheduling.Marietta Believed…  Believed: prolonging childhood is especially needed in a technological society and children learn most successfully and satisfyingly by actively exploring their environments and constructing their own conception of reality based on the direct experiences. .

” Marietta Johnson . but all learning is through experience. Physical education takes the form of folk dancing and creative games.”  “Children should be active in all their learning.A Different Kind of School  Mrs. learning is a consequence and accompaniment of activity. Not only do we learn to do by doing. She said. “ The greatest minds are those able to use the play spirit in work. in fact. Johnson's educational philosophy emphasizes play as an important component of learning.

Georgia.WILLIAM HEARD KILPATRICK (1871-1965)  Kilpatrick was born in White Plains. . Kilpatrick decided to make philosophy of education his specialty and occupied all courses by Dewey.  He first met John Dewey in 1898 and again met him in 1907.  became a mathematics teacher at High School and at Mercer University.  He had an orthodox upbringing and was educated at Mercer University.

3 Guiding Principles (Kilpatrick)  Genuine education involves problem solving  Learning is enriched as students collaboratively research and share information to formulate and test their hypotheses.  Teacher can guide students learning without dominating it .

PROJECT METHODS  Implementing a creative idea or plan.  Learning a new skill or area of knowledge.  Enjoying an aesthetic experience. .  Solving an intellectual problem.

students motivated by their own interest would be engage in wholehearted. democratic.Kilpatrick Believed…  Teachers who used the project method could transform their classrooms into collaborative. learning communities  As they worked collaboratively. purposeful activity in which they designed and complete a project .

Progressive Students and Teachers Progressive Teacher Curriculum is centered around students Teacher engages students so that they develop ideas on their own Teacher is a facilitator of knowledge Progressive Students Students learn from each other Students work together in cooperative groups Role of student is to develop deep understandings through their own findings .

The Purpose of Education  Progressive Educators believe that the purpose of education is to “prepare students to be lifelong learners in an ever-changing society” .



 focuses on a curriculum that highlights social reform (as the aim of education) .What is reconstructionism?  centers on the idea of constant change and emphasizes addressing of social questions  a quest to create a better society and worldwide democracy.

Social reconstructionists beliefs  curriculum should focus on student experience and taking social action on real problems. and multiple perspectives and community-based learning are strategies for dealing with controversial issues.  systems must be changed to overcome oppression and improve human conditions . dialogue.  inquiry.

PROPONENTS  Theodore Brameld (1904-1987)  George Counts (1889-1974)  Paulo Freire (1921-1997) .

Theodore Brameld (1904-1987)  Founder of Social Reconstructionism Born in Neillsville. Wisconsin Completed doctoral at University of Chicago Main focus: create a school system with democracy .

Brameld Believed…  Education should be used to promote social and political change through curriculum that had students investing and taking action on current issues. debate and authentic learning tied to real life issues should be used to promote this change .  Classroom learning should involve inquiry.

Brameld Ideas  considered democracy the core of his educational philosophy. .  he considered no issue out of bounds for discussion and critical analysis.  Education has two major roles: to transmit culture and to modify culture.  suggested reconstructionism as an appropriate label to distinguish this philosophy.  worked with students and teachers to develop democratic objectives.

George Counts (1889-1974) Born on a farm near Baldwin City. Kansas Authority on Soviet education Spokesman for the social reconstructionist in American education .

.Counts Believed…  Recognized that education was the means of preparing people for creating this new social order.  Believe: systems must be changed to overcome oppression and improve human conditions.

 Beginning his educational work in Recife.  Such experiences helped construct a devotion to work that would improve the lives of these marginalized people. in 1921  Freire learned about poverty and oppression through the lives of the impoverished peasants around whom he lived. Freire became the most wellknown educator in the world by the 1970s . Brazil.Paulo Freire (1921-1997)  Born in Recife.

. . .saw teaching and learning as a process of inquiry in which the child must invent and reinvent the world.humans must learn to resist oppression and not become its victims. nor oppress others. a Brazilian whose experiences living in poverty led him to champion education and literacy as the vehicle for social change.

Freire Believed…  People were either with the oppressed or against them.  Reading the word as well as the world can create critical knowledge  Individuals have the power to create history. .

Reconstructionism and Education Today  Aspects and strategies used in reconstructionism are used in classrooms today:  Education is used to create cultural change  Cooperative learning  Debates and discussion over authentic issues  Volunteering and learning from the community  Critical thinking about present day issues .

Classroom Using Social Reconstructionism  Curriculum emphasizes student involvement in societal and world issues  Advocate multicultural education  Generally critical of current methods used in schools because methods reinforce values and attitudes that make society difficult to change .

Application to Education  Hope to provide students with methods for dealing with the significant crises such as:  War  Economic depression  Hunger  Inflation  International terrorism  Technological advances .

Application to education Intention to bring the community into the classroom through: Field trips Community-based projects Opportunities to interact with people outside of the classroom itself .


THE END Q & A Session .

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