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**Amit Raj Satyal Bigyan Sapkota Krishna Paudyal Simon Shrestha Subash Paudyal
**

14 February 2012

Today’s Contents 1

2 3 4

• Overview of Fuzzy Logic • Fuzzy Sets and Operations • Fuzzy Variables

• Fuzzy Example

• Applications and Conclusion

5

**Overview of Fuzzy Logic
**

- Amit Raj Satyal (Roll No: 01)

Origin

• Traces back to Ancient Greece • Lotfi Asker Zadeh ( 1965 )

– First to publish ideas of fuzzy logic. – Professor from UC, Berkeley to model the uncertainty of Natural Language.

**• Professor Toshire Terano ( 1972 )
**

– Organized the world's first working group on fuzzy systems.

• F.L. Smidth & Co. ( 1980 )

– First to market fuzzy expert systems.

Introduction

• What is Fuzzy logic?

– Fuzzy logic is a superset of conventional(Boolean) logic that has been extended to handle the concept of partial truth- truth values between "completely true" and "completely false". – A way to represent variation or imprecision in logic – A way to make use of natural language in logic – Notions like rather warm or pretty cold can be formulated mathematically and processed by computers a means to model the uncertainty of NL

• Fuzzy logic is an attempt to combine the two techniques.

• In fuzzy logic everything is a matter of degree. . equivalently . • Any logical system can be fuzzified • In fuzzy logic. knowledge is interpreted as a collection of elastic or.Characteristics • In fuzzy logic. fuzzy constraint on a collection of variables • Inference is viewed as a process of propagation of elastic constraints. exact reasoning is viewed as a limiting case of approximate reasoning.

Voice from Expert .Rhinehart’s He says “You take a bite out of the apple. Now.” Fuzzy logic can assign percentages of belongingness to the process. or it’s not. It’s not a digital sort of situation where it’s either a one (1) or a zero (0). At some point. is it still an apple? And another bite. It becomes less of an apple as you move along. Is it still an apple? You take another bite out of the apple. . And then.' Heads the chemical engineering school at Oklahoma State University. Fuzzy logic can represent this process. another bite. It’s either an apple. people will no longer perceive it as an apple.

03) .Bigyan Sapkota (Roll No.Fuzzy Sets and Operation .

Take example the set of young people. and a 100 years old person will not be a member of this set. • A one year old baby clearly be a member of set.30. •Example: The set of non-integer Fuzzy sets: •Following Zadeh many sets have more than an eitheror criterion for membership.Fuzzy sets Conventional Sets •A set is any collection of objects which can be treated as a whole. and 40 years? . •But what about people at the age of 20.

8 . •An item’s grade of membership is normally a real number between 0 and 1.4 . •Zadeh proposed a grade of membership. denoted by µ.Contd.3…8) U= [ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8] µ=[1 1 1 1 . •The grade of membership for all its members thus describes a fuzzy sets..2.2] . such that the transition from membership to non-membership is gradual rather than abrupt.6 . •Example: “Ram ate X eggs for breakfast” where XεU= (1.

Membership Functions • The function that ties a number to each element { of the universe is called the membership function • Temp: {Freezing. Warm. 70 (F°) 90 110 11 . Hot} • Degree of Truth or "Membership" 1 Freezing Cool Warm Hot 0 10 30 50 Fuzzy Logic Temp. Cool.

(F°) Fuzzy Logic 12 .Example Membership Functions • How cool is 36 F° ? 1 Freezing Cool Warm Hot 0 10 30 50 70 90 110 Temp.

Membership Functions • How cool is 36 F° ? • It is 30% Cool and 70% Freezing 1 Freezing Cool Warm Hot 0.3 0 10 30 50 70 90 110 Temp.7 0. (F°) Fuzzy Logic 13 .

Fuzzy logic connectives – Fuzzy Conjunction. – Fuzzy negation. p’ – if then – if and only if • Operate on degrees of membership in fuzzy sets Fuzzy Logic 14 . – Fuzzy Disjunction.

75) Fuzzy Logic 15 .75 B 0.Fuzzy Disjunction • AB max(A.375 0 0 (AB = C) (C = 0. B) • AB = C "Quality C is the disjunction of Quality A and B" A 1 1 0.

75 B 0.Fuzzy Conjunction • AB min(A. B) • AB = C "Quality C is the conjunction of Quality A and B" A 1 1 0.375 0 0 (AB = C) (C = 0.375) Fuzzy Logic 16 .

9 0 1 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Fuzzy Logic 17 .6 .4 .1 .Example: Fuzzy Conjunction Calculate AB given that A is .2 .8 .4 and B is 20 A 1 1 B 0 .5 .3 .7 .

4 and B is 20 A 1 1 B 0 .8 .Example: Fuzzy Conjunction Calculate AB given that A is .4 .6 .9 0 1 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Determine degrees of membership: Fuzzy Logic 18 .3 .1 .7 .5 .2 .

8 .6 .7 .5 .3 .7 0 .9 0 1 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Determine degrees of membership: A = 0.1 .4 .4 and B is 20 A 1 1 B 0.Example: Fuzzy Conjunction Calculate AB given that A is .7 Fuzzy Logic 19 .2 .

2 .Example: Fuzzy Conjunction Calculate AB given that A is .7 B = 0.4 .7 .9 0 1 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Determine degrees of membership: A = 0.7 0 .1 .3 .8 .9 Fuzzy Logic 20 .5 .9 0.6 .4 and B is 20 A 1 1 B 0.

7 0 .3 .8 .9 0.7 Fuzzy Logic 21 .1 .Example: Fuzzy Conjunction Calculate AB given that A is .4 and B is 20 A 1 1 B 0.6 .7 B = 0.9 0 1 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Determine degrees of membership: A = 0.7 . B) = 0.5 .4 .2 .9 Apply Fuzzy AND AB = min(A.

4 It means student are happy most of the time It means teacher are happy slightly less than half of their time.For the instance Proposition Student of NCIT are happy Teachers of NCIT are happy Truth value 0. Fuzzy Logic 22 .8 0.

0.2 1-0.6 Fuzzy Logic 23 .Truth value of Negation of propositon in Fuzzy logic: 1 minus the truth value of propostion Example : what is the truth value of statement Negation of Proposition Truth value Student of NCIT are not happy Teachers of NCIT are happy 1.8 = 0.4 = 0.

Fuzzy Variables . 11) .Krishna Prasad Paudel (Roll No.

• set of values that it can take is called its term set. a linguistic variable takes words or sentences as values (Zadeh in Zimmermann. • Each value in the term set is a Fuzzy variable defined over a base variable .Linguistic variable • Just like an algebraic variable takes numbers as values. 1991).

low) .Contd… • Linguistic variable->Fuzzy variable->base variable • Example: Tank example If the level is low • Here. Low is a fuzzy variable. and defined with degree of membership [0.1] • a value of the linguistic variable is level {high.

Fuzzy predicate (primary term) • If the set defining the predicates of individual is a fuzzy set.. old. we can interpret it “P(x) is a fuzzy set”. the predicate is called a fuzzy Predicate • Example – “z is expensive. etc. the sets “expensive(z)” and “young(w)” are fuzzy sets • When a fuzzy predicate “x is P” is given. So.” – “w is young. • Fuzzy linguistic terms often consist of two parts: 1.” • Terms “expensive” and “young” are fuzzy terms. The membership degree of x in the set P is defined by the membership function µP(x) Example: expensive. good.Contd. rare. dangerous. .

almost impossible.2. extremely unlikely. etc • A new term can be obtained when we add a modifier “very” to a primary term – µvery young(u) = (µyoung(u))2 . Modifiers • It is an operation that modifies the meaning of a term • Example: The sentence ‘‘very close to 0’’. • very. the word very modifies Close to 0 which is a fuzzy set. likely.

Logic Process n .

26) .Fuzzy Example .Simon Shrestha (Roll No.

• Disjunction of Conjunctions Fuzzy Logic 31 .Fuzzy Control • Fuzzy Control combines the use of fuzzy linguistic variables with fuzzy logic • Example: Speed Control • How fast am I going to drive today? • It depends on the weather.

Cool.Inputs: Temperature • Temp: {Freezing. Warm. Hot} 1 Freezing Cool Warm Hot 0 10 30 50 70 90 110 Temp. (F°) Fuzzy Logic 32 .

Hot} 1 Freezing Cool Warm Hot 0 10 30 50 70 90 110 Temp. Cloud Cover • Temp: {Freezing.Inputs: Temperature. Overcast} 1 Sunny Partly Cloudy Overcast 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Cloud Cover (%) Fuzzy Logic 33 . Warm. (F°) • Cover: {Sunny. Partly. Cool.

Fast} 1 Slow Fast 0 0 25 50 75 100 Speed (mph) Fuzzy Logic 34 .Output: Speed • Speed: {Slow.

Fuzzy Logic 35 .Rules • If it's Sunny and Warm.. drive Fast Sunny(Cover)Warm(Temp) Fast(Speed) • If it's Cloudy and Cool. drive Slow Cloudy(Cover)Cool(Temp) Slow(Speed) • Driving Speed is the combination of output of these rules..

Speed Calculation • How fast will I go if it is – 65 F° – 25 % Cloud Cover ? • Steps Involved – Fuzzification – Calculation – Defuzzification .

Warm= 0. (F°) .Fuzzification • 65 F° Cool = 0.4.7 1 Freezing Cool Warm Hot 0 10 30 50 70 90 110 Temp.

8. Cloudy = 0.2 1 Sunny Partly Cloudy Overcast 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Cloud Cover (%) .Fuzzification • 25% Cover Sunny = 0.

2 0.4 = 0.7 = 0. drive Slow Cloudy(Cover)Cool(Temp)Slow(Speed) 0.7 • If it's Cloudy and Cool. drive Fast Sunny(Cover)Warm(Temp)Fast(Speed) 0.Calculation • If it's Sunny and Warm.2 .2 Slow = 0.8 0.7 Fast = 0.

Defuzzification • Speed is 20% Slow and 70% Fast 1 Slow Fast 0 0 25 50 75 100 Speed (mph) • Find centroids where membership is 100% 1 Slow Fast 0 0 25 50 75 100 Speed (mph) .

.Defuzzification • Speed = weighted mean = (2*25+.8 mph 1 Slow Fast 0 0 25 50 75 100 Speed (mph) . 1 Slow Fast 0 0 25 50 75 100 Speed (mph) • Speed = (2*25+7*75)/(9) = 63..

Fuzzy Applications .Subash Paudyal .

Applications • • • • • • • • • Industrial control Quality control Elevator control and scheduling Train control Traffic control Loading crane control Reactor control Automobile transmissions Automobile climate control .

Applications • • • • • • • • • Automobile body painting control Automobile engine control Paper manufacturing Steel manufacturing Power distribution control Software engineering Expert systems Operation research Decision analysis .

Mine detection Pattern classification Oil exploration Geology Civil Engineering Chemistry Mathematics Medicine Biomedical instrumentation Health-care products .Applications • • • • • • • • • • • • Financial engineering Assessment of credit-worthiness Fraud detection22.

65} • Fan Speed Set hot {. 80} – Set stop {30. 50} – Set blast {. 90. 60} Set warm {85. 65. 55.Rule Base • Air Temperature – – – – – Set cold {50. 50. 0} – Set slow {50. 10} – Set medium {60. 80} . 30. 0. 100. 0} Set cool {65. 70. 0. 45} Set just right {70. 40} – Set fast {90. 75.

Rules • Air Conditioning Controller Example: – – – – – IF Cold then Stop If Cool then Slow If OK then Medium If Warm then Fast IF Hot then Blast .

Fuzzy Air Conditioner 0 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 if Cold then Stop s Bla t If Hot then Blast If Warm then Fast Fa st Med ium If Just Right then Medium IF Cool then Slow Slo w m Co ol 0 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 Jus Rig t ht W Ho t ar o St p 1 Co ld .

Mapping Inputs to Outputs 1 0 100 90 80 70 60 st Bla t Fa s t Med iu 50 40 30 20 10 0 m Sl ow m ol 0 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 Jus Rig t ht W ar Co Ho t o St p 1 Co ld .

Ongoing Research • Hybrid Intelligent Systems. .

Drawbacks • Requires tuning of membership functions • Fuzzy Logic control may not scale well to large or complex problems • Deals with imprecision. and vagueness. but not uncertainty .

Summary • Provides way to calculate with imprecision and vagueness • Used to represent some kinds of human expertise • Provides an alternative way to represent linguistic and subjective attributes of the real world in computing. • Able to be applied to control systems and other applications in order to improve the efficiency and simplicity of the design process. .

Making Inferences with Imprecise Concepts http://aaai.org/wiki/Fuzzy_logic • This slide deck and related resources: <hyperlink here> .org/AITopics/FuzzyLogic • Fuzzy Logic – From wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.REFERENCES • Fuzzy Logic .

QUESTIONS? .

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