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Sampling refers to the statistical process of selecting and studying the characteristics of a relatively small number of items from a relatively large population of such items,, to draw statistically valid inferences about the characteristics about the entire population.
Non-random (or nonprobability) sampling 5/22/12 . Random (or probability) sampling.Methods • There are two broad methods of sampling used by researchers.
5/22/12 . • The entire process of sampling is done in a single step with each subject selected independently of the other members of the population. each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected as subject.Random sampling (Probability sampling) • In this technique.
Types of random sampling methods 5/22/12 .
• There are many methods to proceed with simple random sampling. The most primitive and mechanical would be the lottery method. 5/22/12 . and each item in the entire population has an equal chance of being included in the sample.Simple random sampling • Simple random sampling ensures that each possible sample has an equal probability of being selected. • The entire process of sampling is done in a single step with each subject selected independently of the other members of the population.
All the individuals bearing the numbers picked by the researcher are the subjects for the study. 5/22/12 .Conti… • Each member of the population is assigned a unique number. Each number is placed in a bowl or a hat and mixed thoroughly. For populations with a small number of members. it is advisable to use the first method but if the population has many members. • Another way would be to let a computer do a random selection from your population. • The blind-folded researcher then picks numbered tags from the hat. a computer-aided random selection is preferred.
• The results are representative of the population unless certain characteristics of the population are repeated for every n'th individual. which is highly unlikely. the researcher first randomly picks the first item or subject from the population. • The procedure involved in systematic random sampling is very easy and can be done manually. Then. 5/22/12 . the researcher will select each n'th subject from the list.Systematic Sampling • In systematic random sampling.
He first picks his starting number. • Starting number : The researcher selects an integer that must be less than the total number of individuals in the population. 5. This integer will correspond to the first subject. the researcher has a population total of 100 individuals and need 12 subjects. 5/22/12 • . • Interval : The researcher picks another integer which will serve as the constant difference between any two consecutive numbers in the progression.Conti… The process of obtaining the systematic sample is much like an arithmetic progression. • The integer is typically selected so that the researcher obtains the correct sample size • For example.
gender. • Equally important is the fact that the researcher must use simple probability sampling within the different strata. nationality and educational attainment. 5/22/12 . • The most common strata used in stratified random sampling are age. • It is important to note that the strata must be non-overlapping. This completely negates the concept of stratified sampling as a type of probability sampling. then randomly selects the final subjects proportionally from the different strata. socioeconomic status. religion.Stratified Sampling • Stratified sampling is a probability sampling technique wherein the researcher divides the entire population into different subgroups or strata.
For example. First. instead of selecting all the subjects from the entire population right off. the researcher selects groups or clusters. the researcher selects the individual subjects by either simple random or systematic random sampling. 5/22/12 . The researcher can even opt to include the entire cluster and not just a subset from it. and then from each cluster. He can divide the entire population (population of Spain) into different clusters (cities). the researcher takes several steps in gathering his sample population. a researcher wants to survey academic performance of high school students in Spain. • The most common cluster used in research is a geographical cluster.Cluster Sampling • In cluster sampling.
5/22/12 .Conti… • Then the researcher selects a number of clusters depending on his research through simple or systematic random sampling. • The important thing to remember about this sampling technique is to give all the clusters equal chances of being selected. • Types of cluster sample. from the selected clusters (randomly selected cities) the researcher can either include all the high school students as subjects or he can select a number of subjects from each cluster through simple or systematic random sampling. • Then. 1. ONE-STAGE CLUSTER SAMPLE TWO-STAGE CLUSTER SAMPLE 2.
• It does not allow the study's findings to be generalized from the sample to the population. • It is that sampling procedure which does not afford any basis for estimating the probability that each item in the population has of being included in the sample. purposive and judgement sampling. the researcher must limit his/her findings to the persons or elements sampled.Non random sampling (Non-probability sampling) • Non probability sampling is also known by different names such as deliberate sampling. • When discussing the results of a non-probability sample. 5/22/12 .
Non-random sampling methods 5/22/12 .
5/22/12 .Convenience sampling • Convenience sampling is a non-probability sampling technique where subjects are selected because of their convenient accessibility and proximity to the researcher. • The subjects are selected just because they are easiest to recruit for the study and the researcher did not consider selecting subjects that are representative of the entire population.
Many researchers prefer this sampling technique because it is fast. easy and the subjects are readily available.com/2009/08/16/statistics-notes-samplingtechniques-2/ 5/22/12 . the population is just too large that it is impossible to include every individual. the most common of all sampling techniques. • This is the reason why most researchers rely on sampling techniques like convenience sampling.Conti… • In all forms of research. it would be ideal to test the entire population. inexpensive. • http://rchsbowman. but in most cases.wordpress.
5/22/12 . In purposive sampling. • Used for situations for reaching a target sample quickly. • We usually would have one or more specific predefined groups we are seeking . the researcher employs his or her own "expert” judgment about who to include in the sample frame. • • Prior knowledge and research skill are used in selecting the respondents or elements to be sampled.Purposive sampling • In purposive sampling we sample with a purpose in mind.
Judgement sampling • A form of convenience sampling in which the population elements are purposively selected based on the judgement of the researcher. • It is low cost. convenient and quick. • 5/22/12 . It is useful if broad population inferences are not required.
• The main reason why researchers choose quota samples is that it allows the researchers to sample a subgroup that is of great interest to the study. the researcher must make sure that the composition of the final sample to be used in the study meets the research’s quota criteria. traits of a certain subgroup interact with other traits of another subgroup. • Quota sampling also allows the researchers to observe relationships between subgroups. In some studies. 5/22/12 .Quota Sampling • Quota sampling is a non-probability sampling technique wherein the assembled sample has the same proportions of individuals as the entire population with respect to known characteristics. • In addition to this. If a study aims to investigate a trait or a characteristic of a certain subgroup. traits or focused phenomenon. this type of sampling is the ideal technique.
• It is useful when you are trying to reach populations that are inaccessible or hard to find. you begin with identifying someone who meets the criteria for inclusion in your studies • You then ask them to recommend others who they may know who also meet the criteria.Snowball sampling • In snowball sampling. 5/22/12 .
THANK YOU…. 5/22/12 . Names ABHISHEK SOBALKAR AKSHAY SHITOLE ANKITA GAUTAM DARSHAN JAIN DISHA DESAI HITESH MADNANI JASIM SHAIKH 3 9 15 21 27 33 39 Roll nos.
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