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Use Fourier’s Transform to process the data.Fourier’s Transform • • The pick up coil receives many different frequency oscillations.5= f = 1/T Signal Strength 1.5 1. Signal Strength Transfor m 4 Time [s] -1 1. 5 1 1. Freqency 0 [Hz] f = 1/T = ¼ = .25 = 1/T = f ½ = . 5/22/12 0.25 0. 5 1 .

25 1 0.25 5/22/12 0.25 1 0.) The pickup coil does not distinguish between the input of each hydrogen. and constructively and destructively interfere. Frequency Frequency 1 0. They are all read together.Fourier Transform (cont. + Time [s] Curre instance. 1 1 1 Fourier’s allows us to determine which frequencies are along the axis. Frequency 1 . if there are two hydrogen = different Time [s] For at Time [s] 4 nt frequencies along4an axis: -1 -1 -1 Signal Strength 4 nal Strength Fouri er 1 0.

orthogonal to the first access the phase encoding gradient can be distinguished! The resulting data is known as a K-Space. But if we take the Fourier Transform again. n 5/22/12 n .2D Fourier Transform  Recall that the second axis is resolved with a phase encoding gradient. 1 1 1 Signal Strength Time [s] 1 + 4 1 = 4 1 4 n A 1D Fourier Transform cannot distinguish between shifted phases.  These hydrogen have the same frequency. but interfere with each other due to phase shift.

K-Space A 2D Fourier transform is conducted by performing two Fourier transforms orthogonal to each other. The “K-Space” undergoes an Inverse Fourier Transform. we . This yields a “K-Space” An example is seen on the right. 5/22/12 Following this mathematical step.

. the peripheral regions of the K-Space encode for the edges of the 5/22/12 image.K-Space [Contd.] General spatial information is concentrated towards the center of “K-Space” In the figure to the right we see an image formed taking only the Inverse Fourier Transform of the center As seen on the of the K-Space. right.

What is Image Formation? 5/22/12 .

How Image Is Formed? 5/22/12 .

or refraction mechanisms commonly used in optical imging 5/22/12 methods . reflection.But MRI does not use projection.

MR SIGNAL  Collected by a coil Encoded through a series of complex techniques and calculations Stored as data 5/22/12 Mapped onto an image matrix .

ECHO TIME Time from the application of the RF pulse to the peak of the signal induced in the coil 5/22/12 .TR .REPETITION TIME Time from the application of one RF pulse to another RF pulse TE .

T1 WEIGHTING A short TR and short TE will result in a T1 weighted image •Excellent for demonstrating anatomy • T2 WEIGHTING A long TR and long TE will result in a T2 weighted image •Excellent for demonstrating pathology • MANY OTHER DIFFERENT TYPES OF IMAGES THAT COMBINE ABOVE AND 5/22/12 INCLUDE OTHER PARAMETERS .

white matter in the brain will exhibit different T1 and T2 values than that of blood.What is the difference between T1 and T2?  Tissue in the human body has its own T1 and T2 value. For example. the 5/22/12 . In magnetic resonance imaging. emitted radio signal from a particular tissue depends on combination of that tissue's T1 and T2 values.

T1 & T2 images T1 T2 5/22/12 .

I. and each v . coronal.R. or sagittal.Imaging The images created in an M. can be in any plane: axial. v Axial Coronal Sagittal  It creates cross-sectional images or slices of a body 5/22/12 part:think of the body part as a loaf of bread.

Some MRI Images Abdomen 5/22/12 Knee Brain .

5/22/12 .