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Terrorism and Its Impact on Human Rights

UHP 6012 Development and Globalization Issues


Norashikin Shariff Siti Sabariah Yaakob Mohd Nazer Apau Dzulnizar Abdul Jabar

Agenda
Objectives and Approach Definitions

Meaning of Terrorism Debunking the Myths Rudiments of Human Rights

Preconditions and Precipitants of Terrorism Impact on Human Rights Conclusion

Objectives and Approach

Objectives
Analyse the impacts of terrorism to the rudiments of Human Rights.

Approach
Establish the universal definitions of both Terrorism and Human Rights Review case studies to examine the trusts of struggles and tactics deployed to achieve targeted goals Observe the violation of Human Rights arising from those acts of terrorism

Definition
Meaning of Terrorism
the systematic use or threatened use of violence to intimidate a population or government and thereby effect political, religious, or ideological change (wikipedia) any act, which is intended to cause death or serious bodily harm to civilians or non-combatants with the purpose of intimidating a population or compelling a government or an international organization to do or abstain from doing any act (UN Panel Nov 2004)

Debunking The Myths of Terrorism


Terrorism / Terrorist is NOT .

Source: US Department of States (2003) - Pattern of Global Terrorism

An armed military conflict or a conventional warfare as

terrorists do not belong to any recognised armed forces and they do not adhere to the laws of war
Caused by poverty as terrorism employs complex tactics requiring over-average education and large funding A single individual acting alone as it must be perpetrated by a

like-minded group with sedimented attack in a larger context

People who exhibit clinical psychopathology, irrationality, or personality disorders as terror organisations screen out

unstable individuals for secrecy

Source: Root Causes of Terrorisms, Findings from an International

Expert Meeting in Oslo, 9 11 June 2003

Definition
Rudiment of Human Rights
Concerns the recognition of the inherent dignity and of equal and inalienable rights of all members of human family Its struggle lies in the endeavour for freedom, justice and peace in the world
Proclamation of Human Rights

Preconditions and Precipitants of Terrorism


The International Expert Meeting in Oslo in 2003 conclude that there is not any specific root cause except some preconditions and precipitants of terrorism
Preconditions tend to set the stage for terrorism in the long run but are insufficient to cause the outbreak of terrorism, but
Precipitants are much more directly affecting the emergence of terrorism where they are specific events or situations that immediately precede, motivate or trigger the outbreak of terrorism.

Examples of Preconditions and Precipitants

Extremist ideologies of a secular or religious nature: When

ideologies are adopted and applied to interpret situations, guide action and serve to dehumanise the enemy and justify atrocities.

Malaysia

Chosen Case Study: Kumpulan Mujahidin Malaysia (KMM) in

The experience of discrimination on the basis of ethnic and religious origin: When sizeable minorities are
systematically deprived of their rights to equal social and economic opportunities, obstructed from expressing their cultural identities, or excluded from political influence.

Chosen Case Study: Terrorism in Kashmir

Examples of Preconditions and Precipitants

Powerful external actors upholding illegitimate or corrupt government : when other avenues are not seen as realistic
options for replacing existing illegitimate regimes with more credible government. Such external support to the illegitimate governments can be seen in foreign domination through puppet regimes serving the political and economic interests of foreign sponsors. Chosen Case Study: Corruption in Kurdish Government

Hegemony

when local or international powers possess overwhelming control compared to oppositional groups, and the latter see no other realistic ways to forward their cause by normal political or military means, thus, asymmetrical warfare offers high political impact. Chosen Case Study: The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict

and

inequality

of

power:

Pictures of Terrorism Acts Impeding Human Rights

Conclusion

Case studies demonstrate differing trusts in terrorists struggles, most of them in retaliation of impediments to basic Human Rights Terrorist acts are often tied to historical events with unwelcomed third-party actors Values of struggles and ideologies exceed human lives and rational thinking Terrorism results in massive destruction of physical and nonphysical assets, including emotional sense, which right is fundamental to all human kind

Regardless of the forms of terrorism, the body of international Human Rights and humanitarian law has drawn limits on permissible means to political ends - that best explains why terrorism are not legitimate acts of war or politics.

So., is terrorism approach the right way to uphold human rights? correcting one wrong with another wrongs?

Session
Thank You

Q&A