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Oil & Gas Processing Plants Design and Operation Training Course

DGEP/SCR/ED/ECP - 24th March-4th April 2003

GAS SWEETENING PROCESSES

DGEP/SCR/ED/ECP - 24th March-4th April 2003

GAS SWEETENING

SALES GAS SPECIFICATION


- To meet the H2S content Specification H2S Content < 4 ppm Vol. - To increase THE GROSS CALORIFIC VALUE CO2 Removal

PROCESS CONSTRAINTS
- CRYOGENIC PROCESSES (Ethane extraction, LNG Manufacture) CO2 Solidification at temperatures below - 70/80C

CRUDE SWEETENING USING STRIPPING GAS


- To remove H2S From the Stripping Gas

DGEP/SCR/ED/ECP

GAS SWEETENING PROCESSES

PROCESSES DEPENDING ON CONTAMINANTS TO BE REMOVED :

CO2 ONLY H2S ONLY CO2 & H2S SIMULTANEOUSLY

SELECTIVE REMOVAL OF H2S

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GAS SWEETENING PROCESSES

CHEMICAL ABSORPTION

PHYSICAL ABSORPTION
PHYSICO- CHEMICAL ABSORPTION

PHYSICAL ADSORPTION
CRYOGENIC PROCESS (CO2 Removal only)

MEMBRANES
Direct Conversion To SULPHUR

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CHEMICAL ABSORPTION

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CHEMICAL ABSORPTION

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CHEMICAL ABSORPTION

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CHEMICAL ABSORPTION

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CHEMICAL ABSORPTION

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CHEMICAL ABSORPTION

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DEA PROCESS
ADVANTAGES :
No degradation by COS & CS2 Absorption of mercaptans Good stability low absorption of HC No reclaimer reduced vaporization losses public Higher circulation rate (lower activity) Higher utility requirements Oxydation No selectivity between H2S & CO2

DISADVANTAGES :
-

UTILIZATION : H2S, CO2, COS, CS2, RSH (up to 20%) SPLIT FLOW SNEA-DEA : higher concentration
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MDEA PROCESS

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MDEA PROCESS

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CHEMICAL ABSORPTION

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HOT CARBONATE PROCESS

ADVANTAGES :
No degradation by COS & CS2 Good chemical stability No reaction with air low absorption of HC No reclaimer Low heat requirement (50% of corresponding amine unit) Low reactivity with H2S No mercaptans absorption higher water content of treated gas licensing fee

DISADVANTAGES :
-

UTILIZATION : HIGH CO2


if H2S in two steps : K2CO3 + mol. Sieves K2CO3 + AMINE

SPLIT FLOW : solution cooling / two stages process / LO HEAT

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HOT CARBONATE PROCESS

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HOT CARBONATE PROCESS

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PHYSICAL ABSORPTION

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PHYSICAL ABSORPTION

WATER WASH : partial treatment SELEXOL PROCESS : NORTON (dimethyl ether of polyethylene glycol)
up to 65% of CO2 light gas sweetening regeneration by flash

FLUOR SOLVENT : propylene carbonate


up to 50% of CO2 Gas dehydration by as solvent and heat regeneration

PURISOL : LURGI
- Selective process to remove H2S even in case of low H2S/CO2 ratio - Gas dehydration by add solvent and heat regeneration

RECTISOL : LURGI
Refrigerated solution of MeOH (high selectivity for CO2) Recompression of flashed gas

ESTASOLVAN : UHDE
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SEPASOLV-MPE : BASF
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SELEXOL PROCESS

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MORPHYSORB PROCESS

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PHYSICAL ABSORPTION

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AMINE PROCESS GUIDELINE

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PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROCESS

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SULFINOL PROCESS

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CHEMICO-PHYSICAL ABSORPTION

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SULIFINOL (SHELL)

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SULFINOL (SHELL)

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HYBRISOL PROCESS

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HYBRISOL PROCESS

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PHYSICAL ADSORPTION

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PHYSICAL ADSORPTION

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PHYSICAL ADSORPTION

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CRYOGENIC PROCESS

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CO2 REMOVAL BY CRYOGENICS

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SPREX

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PERMEATION (Membranes)

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MEMBRANE PROCESS

MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY
For bulk removal of CO2

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Figure XI - B18 : SPIRAL WOUND ELEMENT CONSTRUCTION

HIGH PRESSURE GAS MIXTURE LOW PRESSURE PERMEATE GAS

RESIDUAL GAS

PERMEATE TUBE HIGH PRESSURE GAS MIXTURE MEMBRANE/CLOTH COMPOSITE HIGH PRESSURE GAS MIXTURE PERMEATE CHANNEL SPACER RESIDUAL GAS

RESIDUAL GAS
HIGH PRESSURE CHANNEL SPACER

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Figure XI - B19 : HOLLOW FIBER MEMBRANE ELEMENT


(CYNARA)
CO2 RICH GAS Seal Gasket Epoxy coating Aluminium Tube Diam. 3 to 4 cm Holes Diam. 5 to 7 mm

RESIDUE GAS

Fibers Bundle Diam. 4 and 9 1/2 Length 1 m

CO2 RICH GAS FEED GAS

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FIBER MEMBRANE

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FIBER MEMBRANE

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FIBER MEMBRANE

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TYPICAL ONE STAGE MEMBRANE PFD

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MEMBRANE PROCESS

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MEMBRANE PROCESS

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MEMBRANE PROCESS

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MEMBRANE PROCESS

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PROCESS COMPARISON

DIRECT CONVERSION TO SULPHUR

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PROCESS COMPARISON

ABSORPTION : H2S + 2 Fe3+(L) -------> 2 H+ + S + 2 Fe2+(L) REGENERATION : 1/2 O2 + H2O + 2 Fe2+(L) ------> 2 OH- + 2 Fe3+(L) OVERALL : H2S + 1/2 O2 -------> H2O + S

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SULFINT (IFP)

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DIRECT CONVERSION TO SULPHUR

FIELD OF APPLICATION
LOW FLOWRATE LOW PRESSURE (EXCEPT SULFINT FROM IFP) LOW H2S CONTENT ( < 1000 ppm )

LICENSORS US FILTER ( LO-CAT) IFP with Le Gaz Intgral (SULFINT) SHELL ( SULFEROX )

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PROCESS COMPARISON

GUIDE LINE FOR PROCESS SELECTION

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CHEMICAL ABSORPTION

ADVANTAGES

DRAWBACKS

Not affected by acid gas High partial pressure consumption Low absorption of HC In public domain Reasonable solvent cost of

steam

Foaming tendency (except hot carbonate) Boiler water for make-up Corrosion tendency

Extensive
references

industrial

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PHYSICAL ABSORPTION

ADVANTAGES

DRAWBACKS

Low energy requirement Depends on acid gas partial pressure and temperature Low corrosion Remove mercaptans HC absorption unit affected) (Claus

Low water content in High cost of solvents produced gas Proprietary processes No need of pure water make-up

Most of conclusions are valide for the physico-chemical processes

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PHYSICAL ADSORPTION

ADVANTAGES

DRAWBACKS

Low CO2 content in the Valid for low CO2 initial contents produced gas Low corrosion May mercaptans Combined drying with remove water High regeneration temperature (furnace)

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MEMBRANE

ADVANTAGES

DRAWBACKS

Low
requirement

Low corrosion Low

energy Depends on acid gas partial pressure and temperature High residual CO2 content (a few percent)

water content in produced gas Sensitive to some contaminants No need of pure Low life time of solvent make-up membranes (3 to 5 years) Can be operated un Proprietary processes manned (offshore)

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GUIDELINE FOR PROCESS SELECTION


APPLICATION CO2 ABSORP. BULK REMOVAL WATER WASH SMALL FLOWRATE MEMBRANE DEA, aMDEA HOT CARBONTE PHYS. SOLVENTS LOW ACID GAS DEA, aMDEA CONTENT NOT WITH H2S SENSIBLE TO CONTAMINANT PROCESS NOTE

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GUIDELINE FOR PROCESS SELECTION

APPLICATION CO2 AND H2S ABSORPTION

PROCESS

NOTE

DEA, a MDEA PHYSICAL SOLVENT HC ABSORTION (CLAUS UNIT)

SELECTIVE H2S ABSORPTION

GENERIC MDEA, ADIP SULFINOL

HC ABSORTION (CLAUS UNIT)

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GUIDELINE FOR PROCESS SELECTION


APPLICATION POLISHING IRON SPONGE WASTE SOLID ZnO TO BE CHARCOAL TREATED DIRECT CONVERSION TO SULPHUR LOW FLOW AND PRESSURE (EXCEPT SULFINT) PROCESS NOTE

SWEETENING WITH MERCAPTAN REMOVAL

AMINE WITH NOT FULLY MOLECULAR REFERENCED SIEVE SULFINOL HC ABSORTION (CLAUS UNIT)

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