PİRİ REİS UNIVERSITY

STRUCTURE AND MAIN PART OF THE SHIP

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STRUCTURE AND MAIN PART OF THE SHIP
STRUCTURAL PARTS OF THE HULL The hull (TEKNE) is the main body of the ship below the main outside deck. The hull consists of an outside covering (or skin) and an inside framework to which the skin is secured. The skin and framework are usually made of steel and secured by welding.
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KARĠNA KAPLAMALARI BOYUNA POSTA

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STRUCTURE AND MAIN PART OF THE SHIP
BULKHEADS The interior of the ship is divided by the bulkheads and decks into watertight compartments. A vessel could be made virtually unsinkable if it were divided into enough small compartments.

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STRUCTURE AND MAIN PART OF THE SHIP
BULKHEADS However, too many compartments would interfere with the arrangement of mechanical equipment and the operation of the ship. Engine rooms must be large enough to accommodate bulky machinery. Cargo spaces must be large enough to hold large equipment and containers.

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and condensers for making fresh water). pumping systems. 5 .STRUCTURE AND MAIN PART OF THE SHIP ENGINE ROOM The engine room is a separate compartment containing the propulsion machinery of the vessel. other vessel machinery may be located there (such as generators. Depending on the size and type of propulsion machinery. evaporators.

STRUCTURE AND MAIN PART OF THE SHIP ENGINE ROOM The propulsion unit for ships is a diesel engine. 6 . The "shaft" or rod that transmits power from the engine to the propeller leads from the aft end of the engine to the propeller.

STRUCTURE AND MAIN PART OF THE SHIP ENGINE ROOM DIESEL ALTERNATOR ALTERNATOR SHAFT MAIN ENGINE REDUCTION GEAR 7 .

8 . Along the edges of the weather deck from bow to stern are removable stanchions and light wire ropes.STRUCTURE AND MAIN PART OF THE SHIP EXTERNAL PARTS OF THE HULL The general area in the forward part of the ship is the forecastle. Extensions of the shell plating above the deck are called bulkwarks (küpeĢte-trizi). called life lines (vardavela).

9 . The flat part of the bottom of the ship is called the bilge (sintine).STRUCTURE AND MAIN PART OF THE SHIP EXTERNAL PARTS OF THE HULL The uppermost deck running from the bow to the stern is called the weather deck. The main deck area over the stern is called the fantail or poop (kıçüstü).

Ships with two propellers are called twin-screw ships. The rudder is used to steer the ship. 10 .STRUCTURE AND MAIN PART OF THE SHIP EXTERNAL PARTS OF THE HULL A ship with only one propeller is called a single-screw ship.

the weather deck and the main deck may be one and the same. The main deck is the first continuous watertight deck that runs from the bow to the stern. 11 .STRUCTURE AND MAIN PART OF THE SHIP NAMES OF DECKS The decks aboard ship are the same as the floors in a house. In many instances.

12 . At the bow it is called a forecastle deck (baĢ kasara). and at the stern it is called the poop deck (kıç kasara). amidships it is an upper deck (üst güverte).STRUCTURE AND MAIN PART OF THE SHIP NAMES OF DECKS Any partial deck above the main deck is named according to its location on the ship.

STRUCTURE AND MAIN PART OF THE SHIP NAMES OF DECKS The term weather deck (açık güverte) includes all parts of the forecastle. Any structure built above the weather deck is called superstructure (üst yapı). main. upper. 13 . and poop decks exposed to the weather.

the front-right side is the starboard bow and the front-left side is the port bow. When facing toward the bow.STRUCTURE AND MAIN PART OF THE SHIP SHIPBOARD DIRECTIONS AND LOCATIONS Bow The front end of the ship is the bow (baĢ). When you move toward the bow. when the vessel is moving forward. you are going forward. 14 . it is going ahead (ileri).

STRUCTURE AND MAIN PART OF THE SHIP SHIPBOARD DIRECTIONS AND LOCATIONS Amidships (Center) The central or middle area of a ship is amidships (vasat). The right center side is the starboard beam (sancak kemere) and the left center side is the port beam (iskele kemere). 15 .

When looking forward.STRUCTURE AND MAIN PART OF THE SHIP SHIPBOARD DIRECTIONS AND LOCATIONS Stern (Back) The rear of a vessel is the stern (kıç). when the ship moves in that direction it is going astern (tornistan). When you move in that direction you are going aft. 16 . the rightrear section is called the starboard quarter (sancak kıç omuzluk) and the left-rear section is called the port quarter (iskele kıç omuzluk).

Ship’s gear can be divided into 4 categories:  Standing rigging.  Deck machinery.  Deck fittings. 17 .SHIP'S DECK GEAR The term "ship’s gear" is used to describe that gear and equipment aboard ship that is used for cargo transfer activities and deck operations.  Running rigging.

direk çarmık Liftin uskuru 18 .SHIP'S DECK GEAR STANDING RIGGING Standing rigging gear includes the rigging that supports masts or king posts.

SHIP'S DECK GEAR STANDING RIGGING Shrouds (çarmık) These are heavy wire ropes that provide athwartship support for the mast or king posts. Two or more shrouds are used on either side of a mast or king post. They are secured to the outboard side of the deck or to the bulwark to provide maximum support. 19 .

SHIP'S DECK GEAR STANDING RIGGING Turnbuckles (liftin uskuru) These are internally threaded collars turning on two screws threaded in opposite directions. They are used to secure and to take up the slack in the shrouds and stays. 20 .

They are found at the mast where the jumbo boom (heavy lift boom) is located.SHIP'S DECK GEAR STANDING RIGGING Stays and Backstays (baĢ/kıç ıstralya) These are heavy wires similar to shrouds. The difference is that they will lead in a forward or aft direction. they are called backstays. When they support the mast from an aft (back) direction. 21 . When they support the mast from a forward direction. they are called stays.

SHIP'S DECK GEAR RUNNING RIGGING This gear includes the moving or movable parts that are used to hoist or operate gear (such as cargo runners. topping lifts (mantilya). and guy tackles (palanga)). Topping lift span boom block mast Derrick guy Union plate Guy pendant gooseneck hook 22 .

and mooring lines. KAPALI KURTAĞZI KURTAĞZI KOÇ BOYNUZU BABA TAMBURATALI KURTAĞZI MAPA 23 . running rigging.SHIP'S DECK GEAR DECK FITTINGS These are the devices that are used to secure standing rigging.

Usually there is a set forward and after each chock. They are used on ships for securing mooring or towing lines.SHIP'S DECK GEAR DECK FITTINGS Bitts (Baba/bita) These are heavy metal bed plates with two iron or steel posts. 24 .

25 . about which a mooring line is placed.SHIP'S DECK GEAR DECK FITTINGS Bollard (baba) Strong cylindrical upright on a pier.

The types of chocks used are closed. roller.SHIP'S DECK GEAR DECK FITTINGS Chocks (Kurt ağzı) These are heavy fittings secured to the deck. and double roller. open. 26 . Lines are passed through them to bollards on the pier.

SHIP'S DECK GEAR DECK FITTINGS Chocks (Kurt ağzı) KAPALI KURTAĞZI KURTAĞZI KOÇ BOYNUZU BABA TAMBURATALI KURTAĞZI MAPA 27 .

They are used for securing lines. 28 .SHIP'S DECK GEAR DECK FITTINGS Cleats (Koç boynuzu) These are metal fittings having two projecting horns.

SHIP'S DECK GEAR DECK FITTINGS Pad Eyes (mapa) These are fixtures welded to a deck or bulkhead. They have an eye to which lines or tackle are fastened and are used for securing or handling cargo. 29 .

30 .SHIP'S DECK GEAR Fenders (usturmaça) Material designed to absorb the shock of contact between two ships or a ship and a pier.

lowered from the deck.SHIP'S DECK GEAR Jacobs Ladder (ġeytan Çarmığı) A rope ladder. 31 . as when pilots or passengers come aboard.

SHIP'S DECK GEAR Pilot’s ladder (pilot çarmığı) Flexible portable ladder. stronger than a Jacob’s ladder. usually constructed of metal. 32 .

portable ladder that maybe rigged to the side of the ship. 33 .SHIP'S DECK GEAR Sea ladder (küpeĢte iskelesi) Rigid.

SHIP'S DECK GEAR Accommodation Ladder (borda iskelesi) Rigid. inclined ladder rigged to the side of the ship to allow boarding of a moored or anchored ship. 34 .

Bottom platform (alt tava) 7. Safety net (emniyet ağı) 4. Ladder (iskele) 6. Hoisting arrangement 5.SHIP'S DECK GEAR Accommodation Ladder (borda iskelesi) 1. Stanchion (puntel) 3.Guard rails (vardevala) 2. Lighting (aydınlatma) 8. Base (taban/yer) 9. Lifebuoy (can simidi) 35 .

SHIP'S DECK GEAR Gangway (sürme iskele) A movable bridge used in boarding or leaving a ship at a pier. 36 .

SHIP'S DECK GEAR DECK MACHINERY This includes the standard machinery that is found on the decks of merchant vessels. 37 . The size and shape of the deck machinery may vary depending upon type of vessel. but the operating principles remain the same.

and brakes are mounted. gears. shafts. motor. or move cargo.SHIP'S DECK GEAR DECK MACHINERY Cargo Winches These are power-driven machines used to lift. An electric winch has a steel base on which the winch drum. Electric winches are standard equipment on most vessels. lower. Winches are classified according to their source of power. 38 .

A solenoid brake and a mechanical brake are fitted to the motor shaft. which has cable wound on it.SHIP'S DECK GEAR DECK MACHINERY Cargo Winches The drum. is usually smooth with flanged ends. 39 . It turns on a horizontal axis and is driven through single or double reduction gears by an electric motor (usually direct current). The winch is located on deck.

or for any similar work. FENER KASTANYOLA 40 . lifting heavy weights.SHIP'S DECK GEAR DECK MACHINERY Capstan (bocurgat-dik ırgat) The capstan is a vertically mounted winch head used aboard ship when mechanical power is required for raising anchor.

SHIP'S DECK GEAR Capstan 41 .

SHIP'S DECK GEAR DECK MACHINERY Windlass (ırgat) 42 .