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Atomic structure and Chemical bonding

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Discovery of the atom

The word atom comes from the greek word atomos which means indivisible.

In 1808, a scientist named John Dalton gave the first systematic idea of the structure of the atom

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Daltons atomic theory


All matter is made of atoms. Atoms cannot be created or destroyed. Atoms are indivisible. Atoms of an element are identical. Atom is the smallest unit of matter that takes part in a chemical reaction.

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Early models of the atom


The plum pudding model, 1903

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In 1897, the British scientist , J.J. Thompson discovered the electron and positively charged particles were thought to exist. In 1903, he put forward his plum pudding theory of atom.

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The existence of proton was shown by Goldstein. Neutron was discovered by James Chadwick.

Nucleus was discovered by Ernest Rutherford in 1914. Rutherfords atomic model had a positive nucleus and electrons circulating in a cloud 5/23/12 around the nucleus. However, it does

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Neil Bohr thought of an atom as a tiny Solar system in which the electrons(planets) revolve rapidly around the nucleus (sun) in fixed circular paths called energy shells or energy levels. Each energy level (or shell) is associated with a fixed amount of energy.

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The modern Atom

smallest part of an element that can exist and still have the properties of the element. Relative Relative Sub-atomic
particle Proton neutron electron mass charge 1 a.m.u. 1 a.m.u.
1/1840 a.m.u. Positive charge (+1) None (0) Negative charge ( - 1)

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Structure of atom

Protons and neutrons present in a small nucleus at the centre of the atom and are called nucleons. Nucleus is positively charged due to presence of protons.

Electrons revolve rapidly around the nucleus in fixed circular paths called 5/23/12 energy levels or shells.

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In an atom

Number of protons = number of electrons Total positive charge = total negative charge.

Therefore, an atom is electrically neutral.


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Only electrons take part in a

Atomic number or Proton number

Number of protons in one atom of an element. Number of protons = Number of electrons in in a neutral

atom and not in an ion


5/23/12 Example : One atom of sodium

Significance of atomic number

Atomic number can be used to identify an element. No two elements have the same atomic number. All the atoms of the same element have

same number of protons in their nuclei


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and hence they have same atomic

Example
Atomic number 6 tells us that it is carbon element. No other element can have atomic number of 6. Thus, it is the number of protons (or atomic number) which distinguishes the atoms of one element from the atoms of another element.
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Mass number or nucleon number

Electrons present outside the nucleus of the atom have negligible mass. The protons and neutrons present in the nucleus of the atom constitute the mass of the atom.

Mass number = no.of protons + no.of neutrons of neutrons


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=atomic number+ no.

The atomic number and mass / nucleon number can be indicated on the symbol of an element. mass number symbol atomic number

Example : 12
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Isotopes

Isotopes are atoms of the same element having the same atomic number but different mass numbers. have the same number of protons but different number of neutrons. All isotopes of an element have same chemical properties; hence occupy the same position in the periodic table.

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Isotopes of chlorine

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Reason for fractional atomic masses of elements

Natural chlorine consists of two isotopes:

Calculate the average atomic mass of chlorine.

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Types of isotopes

Non radioactive : C -12 atom which has 6 protons and 6 neutrons in the nucleus. Stable nucleus . Radio-active : C -14 atom which has 6 protons but 8 neutrons in the nucleus. Unstable nucleus.

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What is radioactivity?

The spontaneous emission of invisible radiations by some elements(like Uranium, thorium, radium and polonium) due to the splitting of their nucleus is called radioactivity Elements which emit radioactive radiations are called radioactive 5/23/12 elements.

Unstable nucleus tends to become stable by emitting charged particles (alpha and beta particles ) along with gamma rays(have no charge).

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Half life of radioisotopes.

Rate of decay of a radioactive isotope. Time taken by half of the atoms of a radioactive isotope to decay. Half lives can vary from a few seconds to several million years. Shorter the half-life, the faster the isotope decays and the more unstable it is.

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Different radioisotopes have different half-lives


Radioisotope Polonium-234 seconds C 14 years Uranium-238 years

Half-life 0.00015 5730 4500 million

Measurement of half-life is a useful method of identifying an unknown 5/23/12

Uses of radioisotopes

Medical use: Treatment of cancer because the rays given out by the radioisotope on decay is used to kill the cancer cells. Radioisotope Cobalt 60 is used for this . Industrial use : To detect leakage in underground oil pipe lines ,gas pipe lines and water pipes.Radioisotopes added to the gas or oil are called tracers. 5/23/12

Carbon dating: To find the age of old reamins like dead plants and animals by measuring the levels of carbon-14 radioactivity in them.

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Used as a source of energy in nuclear reactors to generate electricity. Large amount of energy is produced.

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Uranium -235 Proton number is 92. Nucleon number is 235 Number of neutrons is 143 Unstable nucleus , hence radioactive.
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Electronic configuration
The arrangement of electrons in the various shells of an atom of the element.

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Writing electronic configuration


Two things should be known to us1. Number of electrons in an atom given by the atomic number of the element.
2. The maximum number of electrons that
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In an atom

The energy levels or shells are represented by the letters K , L , M , N , O and P. The energy levels are counted from the centre outwards. The first shell, closest to the nucleus , is the lowest energy level. The further a shell is from the

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contd.

Electrons fill up the shells one by one , starting with the first shell. When a shell is full, they start a new one.

The formula 2n2 determines the maximum number of electrons which can be accommodated in a particular shell. n denotes the number of that 5/23/12 energy level.

Points to remember

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valence shell : outermost

Stability of atom

Octet rule: An atom must have eight electrons in its outermost shell. Duplet rule: An atom must have two electrons in its first shell which is also its outermost shell.

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Stable atoms Atomic no. Cofiguration Helium [He] Neon [Ne] Argon [Ar] Krypton [Kr] Xenon[Xe] 5/23/12 2,8,18,18,8 2 10 18 36 54 2 2,8 2,8,8 2,8,18,8

Noble gases

Belong to group zero. Stable electronic configuration Have no tendency to gain or lose electrons. Chemically inert or unreactive. Monoatomic inert gases exist as single atoms
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What is an element?

An element is a pure substance which cannot be broken down into two or more simpler substances nor can it be formed from two or more substances by any known physical or chemical processes. An element is contains only one kind of atoms.

Examples: hydrogen ,oxygen 5/23/12 ,nitogen,etc.

What is a compound?
A compound is a pure substance.

Is made up of two or more elements chemically combined in a fixed proportion by weight. Has uniform composition.

Properties of a compound are entirely different from the properties of its constituents 5/23/12

Example of compound
Water : is made up of two elements hydrogen and oxygen combined chemically in a fixed proportion of 1 : 8 by weight. Properties of water different from those of its constituent elements. hydrogen gas - combustible oxygen supporter of combustion water extinguishes a flame.
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What is a mixture?

A mixture is a substance which consists of two or more elements or compounds not chemically combined. The constituents are present in any proportion by weight. Does not have a uniform composition.

Does not have a fixed boiling point 5/23/12 and melting point.

Difference between metal and non-metal

Non -metals Elements having Metals 4,5,6,7valence 1 ,2 ,3 valence electrons in their atoms. atoms except hydrogen. Easy for them to gain electrons Readily loses to acquire stable these electrons electronic to acquire stable configuration. electronic Form negative configuration.

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Physical properties

Brittle Non-metals Strong Metals Malleable Ductile Sonorous Bad conductors Shiny of electricity Good conductors (except of electricity and graphite) and heat heat. Have high

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Alloys of metals

An alloy is a homogeneous mixture of two or more metals (or a metal and a non-metal) mixed in definite proportion in their molten state. Turning a pure metal into an alloy makes it more useful An alloy is stronger and harder than the original metal. Also noncorrosive.
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Pure metal

Alloy

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Alloys
Alloy made from Mild steel carbon Stainless steel iron,nickel,chromium Brass and Zinc
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iron and

Copper Copper

Bronze

Metallic bond

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How metallic bond is formed?

Atoms in a metal are arranged in a regular pattern called lattice. The atoms vibrate about their fixed positions The outermost electrons (valence electrons)separate from the atom and move freely in a sea of electrons. The positively charged metal ions are 5/23/12 attracted to and held together by the

Cause of chemical bonding

Atoms combine to with one another to achieve stability by acquiring the inert gas electronic configuration Atoms combine in such a way that each atom gets 8 electrons in its outermost shell or 2 electrons in its outermost K shell.
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How do atoms become stable?

by losing one or more electrons (to another atom) By gaining one or more electrons (from another atom) By sharing one or more electrons with another atom

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Types of chemical bonding

Electrovalent or ionic bond(transfer of electrons) Covalent bond(sharing of electrons)

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Ionic bond

Chemical bond formed by transfer of electrons from one atom to another. Formed between metals and a nonmetals. Metal atom loses one or more electrons to the non- metal atom thus forming a positive ion.

Non-metal atom readily accepts these electrons thus forming a 5/23/12 negative ion.

Ion - positively or negatively charged atom


Cation Anion

Negative ion Positive ion formed by gain of one or more formed by loss electrons by an atom Contains less electrons than a a more electrons than normal normal atom atom

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Properties of ionic compounds

Ionic compounds form when metals react with non-metals. Contain ionic bonds. Crystalline solids. Have high melting and boiling points. Usually soluble in water. Non-volatile. Conduct electricity only when 5/23/12

Covalent bond

Chemical bond formed by sharing of electrons between two non- metal atoms. Formed between two non- metals. Sharing takes place in such a way that each atom in the resulting molecule gets the stable electronic configuration of an inert gas. Only outermost electrons are shared.

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Types of covalent bonds


Single covalent bond Double covalent bond Triple covalent bond

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Properties of covalent compounds


Consists of molecules and not ions. Usually liquids or gases. Have low melting and boiling points . Insoluble in water. volatile Do not conduct electricity because they do not contain ions.
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Giant covalent structures or macromolecules


Diamond and graphite Both are made of carbon atoms only. They are Allotropes of carbon . Allotropes - Two different forms of the same element. Carbon atoms are arranged differently in the different forms.
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So, diamond and graphite

Structure of diamond

Crystal lattice is built up from a three dimensional tetrahedral unit. In this unit, a carbon atom is linked to four other carbon atoms by strong covalent bonds. The basic unit is repeated forming a giant three dimensional molecule.

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Diamond

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Structure of graphite

Crystal lattice is built up from a two dimensional hexagonal unit. In this unit, a carbon atom is linked to three other carbon atoms by covalent bonds in the same layer forming regular hexagons. The rings form flat layers that lie one on top of the other ,held together by weak forces.
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The basic unit is repeated forming a

Graphite

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Fullerene

Another allotrope of carbon,discovered in 1990. Also called Buckministerfullerene(has 60 carbon atoms fullerene 60) Molecular structure looks like a football carbon atoms form spherical cages. Pentagonal structure.
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Buckministerfullerene

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Physical properties
Diamond Graphite

Opaque, greyish black solid. Colourless and transparent - Has a metallic sparkles.lusture. Soft and slippery known(due to Hardest substance leaves a black mark and drawn across paper. stablewhenrigid crystal lattice). Conductor of electricity. Non-Conductor of electricity due to absence of free electrons in the Has high melting point. crystal.
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Has high melting point.