Water Treatment Plant AND FEATURES

BY D.MISHRA

SOURCES OF WATER
1. RIVERS, LAKES AND RESEVOIRS (SURFACE DRAINAGE WATER) 2. UNDERGROUND WATERS (SALLOW WALL, DEEP WELL, SPRINGS) 3. RAIN WATER 4. SEA WATER

MAIN IMPURITIES IN WATER
1. Suspended Form (Macro size) Sand, dirt, silt are the suspended mater in water. These contribute turbidity to raw water. 2. Colloidal form – Micro size particles 3. Dissolved form - Alkaline salts and neutral salts, organic matter, Alkaline salts are mainly bicarbonates rarely carbonates and hydrates of calcium, magnesium and sodium. Neutral salts are sulphates, chlorides, nitrates of calcium, magnesium and sodium.

WATER FLOW DIAGRAM
RAW WATER CLARIFLOCC ULATOR
GRAVITY FILTER

U/G STORAGE TANK

D.M. PLANT SOFTENING PLANT

BOILER MAKEUP C.W. MAKEUP

DRINKING WATER

COOLING WATER

Treatment of Water
1. Clarification

2. Filtration
3. Softening or Demineralisation

Clarification
Pre- Treatment of water • • • • Mixing of chemicals with water Coagulation and flocculation Sedimentation Filtration

Coagulants
1. 2. 3. 4. Aluminium Sulphate, Sodium Aluminate Iron sulphate Poly electrolytes (long chain amides) Poly Aluminium Chloride ( PAC )

Factors affecting coagulation 1. pH ( 5.5 – 8.0 ) for Al2(SO4)3 2. Temperature (30- 400C ) 3. Time

CLARIFLOCCULATOR
Chlorine Lime Flash Alum Mixer
Clarification Flocculation

Clarified water to filters

Raw water

Water quality at Clarifier outlet Turbidity - <20 NTU Residual Chlorine pH - 5.5 to 8.0 0.2 ppm

Sludge settling pond

Filtration
Filtration is the removal of the solid particles from water by passing it through a filtering medium. Filtration is usually a mechanical process does not remove dissolved solids. Filters used in Water Treatment are mainly of two types.

1. Pressure Filters 2. Gravity filters Pressure filters are in closed, round steel shells and function with the pressure of the incoming water. Gravity filters are in steel, wood or concrete containers that are open at the top and function at atmospheric pressure.

Filter Media
Theoretically any inert granular material can be used for filtration. Quarts sand, Silica sand, anthracite coal, garnet may be used for filtration. Silica sand and anthracite are the types of filter media which are commonly used.

Filter medium layers in GSF
1st layer - 50 mm X 37 mm gravel

2nd layer - 37 mm X 12 mm gravel
3rd layer – 12 mm X 6 mm gravel 4th layer – 6 mm X 2.5 mm grit

5th layer – 0.35 mm X 0.5 mm sand

Gravity Sand Filter
Gravity Sand Filter

Clarified water from clarifier

IN

5th layer 4th layer

For back washing of the GSF water is passed through filter in reverse direction

3rd layer 2nd layer 1st layer

OUT

Uses of filtered water
1. Feed water to DM plant

2. Feed water to Softening Plant
3. Drinking water – Township and plant 4. Service water – as cooling water for A/C and Compressors

Softening Plant
Brine injection SI - Service Inlet SO - Service Outlet BWI - Backwash In BWO - Backwash Out RO - Rinse Out
Service in

Back wash water to clrifier BWO

SI
BWI

Drain

To spent brine tank

SO

Hardness - < 5 ppm
Service out

OBR - 15000 M3

Softening Plant
Ion Exchange reactions:CaCO3 + 2RNa R2Ca + Na2CO3 MgSO4 + 2RNa R2Mg + Na2SO4 Al2(SO4)3 + RNa CaCl2 + 2RNa Ca(HCO3)2 + 2RNa 2R3Al + 3Na2SO4 R2Ca +2NaCl R2Ca + 2NaHCO3

Softening Plant
Regeneration Reactions :R2Ca + NaCl R2Mg + 2NaCl R3Al + 3NaCl 2RNa + CaCl2 2RNa + MgCl2 3RNa + AlCl3

ION- EXCHANGE RESIN

• ION EXCHANGE MATERIAL ARE SYNTHETIC RESIN MADE BY POLYMERISATION OF STYRENE & DIVINYL BENZENE. MAJOR PORTION IS STYRENE (80-92%) & MINOR PORTION IS DIVINYL BENZEND (8-20%). THE DVB ACTS AS A CROSOLINK TO HOLD THE LONG CHAIN.

ION EXCHANGE MATERIALS

•Ion exchange is reversible inter-change of ions between a solid and liquid in which there is no permanent change in the structure of the solid i.e. ion exchange resin. • Ion exchange procedure is used in water softening and deionization. •It also provides a method of separation that is useful in many chemical processes like separation of lanthanide’s. •The utility of ion exchange resin rests on its ability to get regenerated so that these can be reused again and again.

STRUCTURE OF ION EXCHANGE RESINS
Matrix: The basic polymeric structure(or the solid support) for ion exchange resins is called matrix. Functional Groups: The acidic/basic groups/sites attached to three dimensional co-polymeric matrix are called Functional Groups. Functional Polymer: The matrix along with Functional Group is called Functional Polymer or ion exchange resin.

PROCESS OF ION EXCHANGE •Reversible: Ion exchange is a reversible process therefore, resin can be converted from one ionic form to the other form, number of times and reused. •Regeneration: The process of converting resin to the desired ionic form is called regeneration. •Exhaustion: The resin is said to be exhausted when it cannot exchange ions without effecting the desired quality of water.

TYPES OF RESINS USED IN DEMINERALIZATION PLANT
1.Strong acid cation resins (SAC): The strong acid cation resin derived their exchange activity from sulphonic acid group(-SO3H) phosphonic (H2PO3-). When operated on hydrogen cycle these remove nearly all cations present in raw water. The strong acid cations can convert neutral salts into corresponding acids. After exhaustion the resin can be regenerated with HCl(4%)& NaCl(10%) for demineralization and softening purpose, repectively. 2.Weak acid cation resins(WAC): The weak acid cation resins have –COOH group as exchange sites. These resins have the capability of removing all cations associated with alkalinity to a much greater degree than SAC resin. These do not function efficiently below pH 5.0, so these cannot split neutral salts effectively. The main asset of WAC resins is their high regeneration efficiency which not only reduces the amount of acid required for regeneration, but also minimizes the waste disposal problem. These are useful where there is high degree of hardness and alkalinity. Frequently these are used in conjunction with a strong acidic polishing resin.

3.Strong base anion resin(SBA): •The Strong base anion resins derived their functionality from quaternary ammonium exchange sites.These are capable of exchanging anions like Cl-,HCO3-,Silica. Two type of SBA resins are commercially available and commonly referred as Type-I & Type-II. •Type-I site have three methyl groups while in Type-II resins an ethanol group replaces one of the methyl groups. The Type-I resin has higher basicity, greater chemical stability but somewhat less exchange capacity and low regeneration efficiency particularly when the resin is exhausted with monovalent anions i.e. chloride and nitrate. It is effective against organics & silica. The Type-I resins are favoured for the high temperature applications where chemical stability difference is most apparent. •The Type-II resin is less stable but having slightly more capacity and regeneration efficiency. In general, a Type–II SBA resin is recommended where silica effluent quality is not as critical and also where a relatively high chloride and/or sulphate content prevails in raw water. •After exhaustion SBA resin can be regenerated with 4% NaOH.

4.Weak base anion resin(WBA): •Weak anion resins derive their functionality from primary (RNH2),secondary(R-NHR’)& tertiary amine (R3N)groups. The weak weak-base anion resins remove free minerals acidity(FMA) such as HCl & H2SO4 but doesn’t remove weakly ionized acids such silicic acid and bicarbonates. • The main advantage of weak base exchangers is that they can be regenerated with stoichiometric amount of regenerant, and are therefore, much more efficient. These have a higher capacity for the removal of chlorides, sulphates. • These are used in conjunction with SBA in demineralization system to reduce regenerant cost and to attract organics thereby protecting the more susceptible strongly basic resins, and for service in which carbon dioxide and silica are not important. Where silica removal is not critical, WBA may be used by themselves in conjunction with air stripper to remove CO2(degaser).

Classification of Ion Exchange Resins Based on Functionality Resin Type Strong Acid functional Group sulphonic Configuration R-SO3H Example (INDION) 225

Weak Acid

Carboxylic

R-CH2CHCH3 COOH
CH3 R-CH2N+CH3OHCH3 CH3 R-CH2N+CH3OHCH2 CH2 OH CH3 R-CH2N+HOH- 850 CH3

236

Strong Base TYPE-I
Strong Base TYPE-II Weak

Quaternary Ammonia

FFIP

Quaternary Ammonia

NIP

Tertiary

DM PLANT
From filter water pumps
For circuit rinse

ACF

WAC

SAC

WBA

SBA

MB

Air DEGASSER
To main plant for boiler make up

DM water storage tank

DM PLANT
Water quality at different stages of Demineralisation process:Feed water to DM plant Turbidity - <2 NTU ACF out Residual chlorine - Nil Turbidity - < 0.5 NTU Cation Exchanger out Na - <2 ppm Degasser out Dissolved CO - <5 ppm

DM Plant
Anion Exchanger out Silica - < 200 ppb Conductivity - < 10 ms/cm pH - 6.8 - 7.2 Mixed bed out Silica - < 20 ppb Conductivity - < 0.1 ms/cm pH - 6.8 - 7.2

Activated Carbon Filter
Service and Regeneration ( Back wash )
SI - Service Inlet SO - Service Outlet BWI - Backwash In BWO - Backwash Out RO - Rinse Out Air vent BI To Cation Exchange SO SI RO

BO

Drain

Cation Exchanger And Anion Exchanger
Service and Regeneration
exchanger
DF - Down Flow

Regeneration line to weak

Weak

Strong

NF - Nozzle flushing

Air Vent
SI DF

NF

Air Vent

BI
BO RO SO

SI

BI
Acid/Alkali injection

Drain

BO RO Drain

SO

MIXED BED
Service and Regeneration

Alkali injection

SI NF
Air

Air Vent

Drain

Acid injection

SO

Mixed Bed
Resin Separation

Anion exchange Resin

Cation exchange Resin

Ion-exchange Reactions
Cation Exchanger • During Service NaCl RH + CaCO3 MgSO4 Na2SiO3 • During Regenration RNa R2Ca + HCl R2Mg

RNa + HCl R2Ca + H2CO3 R2Mg + H2SO4 RNa +H2SiO3 NaCl RH + CaCl2 MgCl2

Ion-exchange Reactions
Anion Exchanger • During Service
HCl R’OH + H2CO3 H2SO4 H2SiO3 • During Regenration R’Cl R’2CO3 + NaOH R’2SO4 R’2SiO3 R’Cl R’2CO3 R’2SO4 R’2SiO3 + + + + H2O H2O H2O H2O

R’OH +

NaCl Na2CO3 Na2SO4 Na2SiO3

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