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Safety in Construction

Safety Module: Construction safety, rev 0.0, Mar 2007

Current Scenario
One out of every five persons employed in construction received injuries annually; The frequency of accidents is 6 to 8 times higher during the first 6-8 months of employment;

A majority of persons injured were unskilled workers in the age group 20-30 years employed with sub contractors
Working at height was the most hazardous operation at construction sites.

Safety Module: Construction safety, rev 0.0, Mar 2007

Why Do Accidents Occur ?


In construction & erection activities

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Actual physical hazards Environmental hazards Human factors Lack of / or poorly designed safety standards Failure to communicate

Safety Module: Construction safety, rev 0.0, Mar 2007

Why Do Accidents Occur?


In construction & erection activities
Reasons The activity is only for a limited period Worksite is frequently changed Several sub-contractors are deployed to perform the work in nearby vicinity Workers not familiar with the worksite hazards that are not part of their normal job; Contractors change the workforce frequently or workers change job; they are not trained on new jobs. Majority of contract workers are unskilled Safety officer not employed Unawareness of safety rules and regulations Lack of safety training

Safety Module: Construction safety, rev 0.0, Mar 2007

Why Do Accidents Occur?


In construction & erection activities
Reasons ..Contd Sub-contractors also lack safety knowledge The environmental conditions are not conducive T&P are not suitable for environmental conditions Temporary arrangements of scaffolds, stair cases Work platforms, scaffolds, equipments etc are regularly being moved / assembled/ disassembled or modified. Thus new hazards are emerging. The work is often seasonal and urgency to complete the job/ forced to do the job /work under pressure Lack of continuous supervision Overstress

Safety Module: Construction safety, rev 0.0, Mar 2007

Remedial Measures
Ensure use of PPEs by employees and contract workers Fall arrestors, life line, safety net as and where required are to be provided without fail Training to all employees and contract workers on safety Mock drills on fire and other hazards are to be carried out at regular internals Employees participation in safety Tool box talks and pep talks to all on regular basis at work place.

Safety Module: Construction safety, rev 0.0, Mar 2007

Relating to Safety & Health of Construction Workers

Major Legislations

1.

Building and other construction workers (Regulation of employment and conditions of service) Act, 1996
Building and other construction workers (Regulation of employment and conditions of service) Central Rules, 1998

2.

Safety Module: Construction safety, rev 0.0, Mar 2007

Relating to Safety & Health of Construction Workers Major provisions under the building and other construction workers (regulation of employment and conditions of service) Act, 1996 and the rules there under are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Registration of establishments and building workers Constitution of state welfare boards Constitution of building and other Construction workers welfare fund Constitution of safety committee Appointment of safety officers Responsibilities and duties of employers, architects, project engineers and designers, building workers etc.

Major Legislations

Safety Module: Construction safety, rev 0.0, Mar 2007

Relating To Safety & Health Of Construction Workers

Major Legislations

7. Provision of welfare facilities 8. General provisions regarding safety, health and welfare facilities 9. Construction, installation, maintenance and periodic testing and examination of certain construction equipment such as lifting appliances and gears, transport and earth moving equipment, pressure equipment, scaffolds, power shovels and excavators, pressure equipment, etc. 10.Provision relating to general construction operations such as concrete work, work on or adjacent to water, excavation and tunneling works, construction repair and maintenance of steep roof, structural frame and form work, stacking and unshackling, work in cofferdams and caissons, handling of explosives, piling
Safety Module: Construction safety, rev 0.0, Mar 2007

Relating to Safety & Health of Construction Workers


11. Periodical medical examination of construction workers 12. Reporting of accidents, dangerous occurrences and occupational diseases 13. Provision of medical facilities

Major Legislations

Safety Module: Construction safety, rev 0.0, Mar 2007

Accident Prevention Measures in Construction

Safety Module: Construction safety, rev 0.0, Mar 2007

Accident Prevention Measures in Construction

1. All construction sites must have safety plan before carrying out construction works. The plan should include details of risk and arrangement for ensuring health and safety of everyone who may be affected by the construction work and monitoring compliance of statutory requirements. 2. The construction owner or principle contractor needs to qualify the contractors/ sub-contractors and conduct pre-construction conference to deal with the hazards. Planning must done eliminate the un safe conditions.
Safety Module: Construction safety, rev 0.0, Mar 2007

Accident Prevention Measures in Construction


3. As the working at height was the most hazardous activity most of the fatal accidents due to fall from height can be prevented if employers provided the right equipment and train employees to use it properly. Employers must also consider whether the existing structures providing a safe workplace if not an extra working platform for example scaffolding or cradle may be needed. 4. The risk of object falling can be prevented if the working platforms are kept clean of loose items that could be accidentally kicked off. Other barriers such as safety nets can be used to prevent objects falling from working platforms.

Safety Module: Construction safety, rev 0.0, Mar 2007

Accident Prevention Measures in Construction


5. Contractor and their sub agencies can prevent excavations collapses by supporting their sites with sheeting or by using support system. A competent person who fully understands the dangers should inspect the excavations at the start of the each shift. Electrical safety can be ensured if all employees on construction sites are aware of the importance of safety procedures and if they immediately report any fault and stop using tools or cables as soon as they spot any sign of damage.

6.

Safety Module: Construction safety, rev 0.0, Mar 2007

Accident Prevention Measures in Construction


7. The employers should carry out a risk assessment of all transport activity including loading and unloading and introduce control measures. Although control measures that employers introduce should minimize the kind of risks outlined, employer may still found that there is a remaining risk of exposure. In this circumstances employer should issue the required personal protective equipment although this should only be considered as a last resort measure.

8.

Safety Module: Construction safety, rev 0.0, Mar 2007

Accident Prevention Measures in Construction


9. Education and training of the personal engineers, managers, supervisors and workers in safety is essential if the construction is to become a safe activity. The contractor should organise the need based training programmes to these employees at regular intervals.

10. Safety audit and regular inspections will help in identifying the hazardous existing in the activities being carried out at different phases. These audits and inspections should be conducted by professional agencies and team of persons from time to time and their recommendations should be implemented.
Safety Module: Construction safety, rev 0.0, Mar 2007

Accident Prevention Measures in Construction


11. Participative management in safety will not only help in improving safe working place but also create enthusiasm among the employees working at various levels to control accidents. Safety committees should be formed at construction sites and regular meetings should be conducted. The recommendations of the committee should be considered for implementation & these recommendations to be reviewed in the next meetings. 12. Whatever the hazard, the aim remains the same to avoid the hazard altogether or, if this is not reasonably practicable, to assess the risks and introduce the effective control measures.
Safety Module: Construction safety, rev 0.0, Mar 2007

Employees Participation
Safety committees
As per factorys act 48 clause 41-g NTPC has set up a safety committee at all the projects consisting of equal no. of representation of workers and management to promote cooperation between the workers and management in maintaining proper safety and health at work place and to review periodically the measures taken in that behalf.

Safety task force Safety stewards Safety circle

Safety Module: Construction safety, rev 0.0, Mar 2007

Personal Protective Equipments


Personal protective equipments to be provided to all employees based on functional requirements. Protection of head, face, eyes, ears, respiratory, body, hand, foot shall be taken care while issuing personal protective equipments.

Safety Module: Construction safety, rev 0.0, Mar 2007

Personal Protective Equipments

Safety Module: Construction safety, rev 0.0, Mar 2007

Occupational Health Check Up


Occupational health check up of workers employed in a hazardous process conducted periodically to detect any deterioration in the health according to section 41C of Factories act 1948. Projects maintain accurate and up to date health records of workers employed in hazardous process. In NTPC medical examination of all employees above 40 years of age is also conducted annually.

Occupational health checkup of contract workers is being imposed and is being made mandatory

Safety Module: Construction safety, rev 0.0, Mar 2007

Occupational Health & Safety Certification

OHSAS 18001 /IS18001 have been obtained by all stations .

Safety Module: Construction safety, rev 0.0, Mar 2007

Safety Mantra
Danger arises when a man feels secure in his position Destruction threatens when a man seeks to preserve his worldly estate Confusion develops when a man has put every thing in order therefore A wise man does not forget danger in his security Nor Ruin when he is well established Nor Confusion when affairs are in order In this way he gains person safety and is able to protect empire.
Safety Module: Construction safety, rev 0.0, Mar 2007

Safety in Construction in NTPC


NTPC has produced a film on safety in construction to educate the employees of NTPC and contractors working in construction & erection works. Detailed safety rules for construction & erection have been prepared to ensure the safety of the employees working in construction & erection working in the plants. Comprehensive safety clauses have been incorporated in the general conditions of the contract for construction & erection and operation & maintenance works to ensure the safety of the contractors employees.

Safety Module: Construction safety, rev 0.0, Mar 2007

Safety in Construction in NTPC


Corporate Safety circulates gist of Enquiry Committee Reports of the accidents and recommendation thereof to all the Projects / Stations to initiate preventive actions in order to avoid recurrence of such accidents. Internal and external Safety Audit observations are being complied with and review is taken by Corp Centre.

Safety Module: Construction safety, rev 0.0, Mar 2007

Safety Module: Construction safety, rev 0.0, Mar 2007