Quality Circle Forum of India

presents

- simplified

NEW SEVEN TOOLS

& PRIORITIZATION ANYLYSIS

3d

6
2d 15 27 4d 3 3d 1
0 3 0 3 9 13 21 25

15 18 27 30

7
18 18 0d 30 30

13 25 11 d 13 24 5 19 30

8 14 6 d
43 49 43 49

ARROW DIAGRAM
2 13 9d 4
8 14 6 d 8 14 8 17 11 13 22

10 d
22 32 19 32

12

19 22 3d 19 22

5d
14 19 14 19

9

10

What is Arrow Diagram?
It is a network technique using nodes for events and arrows for activities for project planning, scheduling and monitoring. This is a very useful tool when we want to plan the activities of a known but a complex task or project. With the help of this tool we can workout an ideal project plan and also daily plan for not only to the main task but also for the other allied tasks and monitor their progress in an effective manner.

This tool can be traced back to the Harmony Graph invented by a Polish Scientist Karol Adamiecki in 1930s. In the Harmony graph the main and allied activities were shown in the horizontal axis of a graph and a moveable strip was used to indicate the current status.

In 1958 the research team of Lockheed Aircraft Corporation was working on Palaris missile system. They used a modified Harmony Graph and named it as "Program Evaluation Research Task" which was later on renamed as "Program Evaluation Review Technique" (PERT).

Various people in United Kingdom, France and in other parts of USA developed similar Systems more or less at the same time. Notable among them is "Critical path method" system jointly developed by Dupon/Remington Rand Univac team in 1957. They used this system for planning and controlling the plant overhauls, maintenance and other activities.

PERT was designed to enable management to obtain more realistic estimates of activity duration. It also provides a model, which reflects some of the statistical uncertainties, involved in project scheduling and control. There is an empirical formula used for obtaining the estimated time for each activity in PERT. Te = (a + 4m + b) where a = optimistic estimate; m = most probable estimate; b = pessimistic estimate.

CPM provides a model for studying the trade off between time and cost. In Arrow Diagram salient features pf PERT and CPM are included to make it more effective.

In the present days, as we know, the word Quality not only indicates product quality but also timely availability, competitive cost and after sales service. Of these 'time' is of paramount importance.

In a competitive market situation, a product or service launching calls for meticulous planning of all the activities involved and timely completion.

Any delay at any stage can have major impact on the total project, if we have not planned them properly.

A Task Force constituted should identify at the planning stage itself what is the main task and what are the allied tasks.

Then it is necessary to know their interconnection and the possible completion date for each task.

Once we have all these information's they can be arranged in order and then a review can be done on the progress and necessary actions can be taken.

Gantt or Milestone Charts are also used in planning the projects. They are useful where the jobs are simple and straightforward and have a logical sequence.

MILESTONE CHART Quality Circle Activity Planning
PROJECT STUDY PLANNING IS AN EFFECTIVE METHOD BY WHICH QUALITY CIRCLE MEMBERS ATTAIN THE SKILL TO PLAN THEIR ACTIVITIES AND EFFECTIVE TIME MANAGMENT Quality Circle Name Project Project No. Meeting Day
No. Activity Week Actual

Department Reason for selection Date of beginning Time

Manager

Facilitator

Members’ Name

Date of completion

No. of projects completed
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Target

1. Defining the problem 2. Analyzing the problem 3. Identifying the causes 4. Finding out the root cause 5. Data analysis 6. Developing solution 7. Foreseeing possible resistance 8. Trial implementation and checking performance 9. Regular Implementation 10. Followup/Review

CHANGING SITUATIONS

But they will fall short when we need a thorough plan to cope up with the changing situations. It is very difficult to get accurate information on a day to day basis with them.

When a project is too big and when we have to judge the priorities of control process, Gantt chart and Milestone charts are inadequate.

200 195

Production Costs Unit Price Profits

Millions of Dolla rs

190 185 180 175 170

165

160

155 150 1990 1991 1992

When to use an Arrow Diagram?
Arrow can be used when a large project is planned. It enables a planner to see in a graphic form the relationships among various parts of a project and where it needs time and cost estimates.

Minister is busy. He wants us to postpone “Independence Day‟ celebration to 20th August.

They are also useful for tasks wherein time factor is critical. We can think of many such tasks like marriage, Independence Day celebration, Anniversaries, and so on. Here the dates cannot be changed and tasks need to be completed right on time.

Planning on putting up a restaurant?

SOLUTION

To make your work easy make an arrow diagram!!!!

Similarly it is very useful where the jobs are critical and many agencies are involved.

Sir, we are having lot of problems in completing the project

Why don’t you draw a PDPC chart

But the Arrow Diagram can be used effectively where we are familiar with the tasks. If it is not known clearly 'PDPC' (Process Decision programme Chart) is the method to be used.

(I) Annual Shut Down of a plant for maintenance: An Arrow Diagram will help in the timely completion of the job and decommissioning it.

(ii) Successful Conduct of marriage: Marriages in our country are most complicated job. Even insignificant persons of bridegroom's party are expected to be kept in good humour . An Arrow Diagram will help to plan the activities properly and to monitor that they are carried out with care.

I want you to make an arrow diagram showing how to go about introducing TQM

iii) Introduction of TQM in an organization : Arrow Diagram will come in handy to help them in this.

(iv) Implementation of New Project: Arrow diagram will help in meticulous planning and execution

Thank you for completing my house on time without exceeding my budget

Oh! he does not know that I could do it only by using an arrow diagram

(v) Construction of a house If you want to construct a house, arrow diagram will help you from the purchase of land site to "Griha Pravesham". (i.e. entering the newly built house)

(vi) Conduct of conventions: An 'International Convention' has to be conducted in 2002. Start planning the activities from today with the help of an Arrow Diagram.

Understanding the terminology and symbols used in Arrow Diagram

Before we embark upon making an Arrow Diagram let us understand the symbols and terminology used in making them.

a) Event, Node Nodes correspond to the events in a project. A circle generally indicates it. A number inside the circle represents the event number in a project; an event may mark the initiation of an activity or the completion of the activity after which the next activity will be initiated.

E.g.: Node 1

1

b) Job, Task (activity) Arrows are used in an arrow Diagram to represent activities. (A job or a task) Length of arrows is arbitrary and has no relevance to activity time. This is to explain the task and time required for completion of a particular job. Two nodes connected by an arrow show this and their numbers refers the tasks
E.g.: Tasks (7) & (8)
7

t

8

t = time for the activity event (7) to (8)

c) Preceding Job A preceding job or an activity is a task that needs to be completed before starting of another task. Activity (7) precedes activity (8) and activity (7) and (8) precede activity (9) and so on.
E.g.: (7) (8) (9)

d) Succeeding Job: Task that cannot be started until the earlier one is completed.
E.g.: (7)

t

(8)

t

(9)

Task 8,9 succeeding job for task, 7, 8.

e) Duration (time for each activity) The time period needed for the completion of any task or activity t2 t1 E.g.: (7) (8) (9)

t1 = Time needed to complete activity (7) To (8) t2 = Time needed to complete activity (8) to (9)
Here, the task 7,8 will take 6 days and task 8, 9 will take 5 days. i.e. t1 = 6 days t2 = 5 days

f) Dummies
A dummy is represented by dashed arrows ( ). A dummy is used as a connector and has zero duration. As shown two numbers i.e., the starting and ending number of the nodes identify each task. (5) Tasks 5, 6 (6)

Suppose there are two tasks, both starting at the same time and ending at the same time. They cannot be drawn as shown below

7)

Task „A‟

Task „B‟

(8)

Such depiction will lead to confusion. Under such circumstances dummies are used.

8
6
9
Use of dummies depends upon the task. Let us see a few of them.

I) There are three activities 'A' 'B' and 'C' starting simultaneously, wherein activities 'A' and 'C' are taking less time then a diagram like below showing dummy between 2-4 and 3-4 is made
is dummy here It can be drawn as shown here

2 t1 t2 t3 3

2

1

4

1

4

3

ii) Suppose tasks between 1, 2 and 1, 3 are not time consuming but can proceed further only on completion of task 1, 4 then the diagram has to be drawn as follows:
A

2

1

B

4

3

C

iii) Suppose task 1,2 do not have time and task 1, 3 needs less time than task 1, 4 then the diagram can be made as shown below.

2

A

1

B

4

C

3

iv) Between 1, and 4 there are two tasks i.e., task 1, 2 (A) and task 2, 4 (B) and task 1, 3 do not require time but task 3, 4 needs time then it is made as follows.
A B

1

2

4

3

C

Please remember dummies are used to indicate sequential relationship between parallel sequences of activities. But take that dummies are not used unnecessarily. Such usage will lead to only confusion.

g) Earliest Start/Finish Time and Latest Start/Finish Time As we know Arrow Diagram is made when we have complex task in the hand where multiple activities are carried out. Let us look into an example of a small house being constructed. An Arrow Diagram made for that is shown here: Arrow Diagram for a Small House Construction is drawn, taking the main events into consideration.

Arrow Diagram for a Small House Construction is drawn, taking the main events into consideration.
Door, windows etc.

5

Foundation

Structure and RCC roofing

Wall construction

1
t = 20 days

2
t = 30 days

3
t = 20 days

4

Finish Plastering, whitewash & painting t = 25

6
trial tests t=5

10

= Critical path t = time

Plumbing t = 15 Electric works t = 10

7 8

9
Trial tests

As you can see the total time is X days for construction of this house.
1 2 3 4 4 2 3 4 5 6 10 10 = 20 = 30 = 20 = 20 = 25 10 10 25 days 70 days

4
4

7
8

9
9

= 20
= 10

Here Earliest Start time for 'finish', 'fixtures', 'plumbing' and 'Electrical' is 70 days i.e. all can be started only when the walls are constructed.

Earliest Finish time for finishing is 95 days, {up to the stage of fixtures 90 days, up to to the stage of plumbing and testing 90 days and upto the state of electrical fittings} is 80 days.

This is what it should be as per the schedule. In case of any delay in tasks 1, 2, 3, 4 will get affected and a delay in tasks (3) (4), other tasks like fixtures, plumbing, Electrical fittings and finishing will be affected.

After task (3) - (4) is completed only delay will be in finishing and that would affect the completion of the project.

In case of fixtures and plumbing, even if they are started after earliest start time i.e.; 70 days up to a delay of 5 days will not affect the project. Suppose they start on 75th day still the job can be completed by 95th day, which is the scheduled project completion day.

Similarly, if electrical work started on 85th day, it can still be completed by 95th day.

In case of fixtures and plumbing, latest start time is 70th day and for electrical latest start time is 85th day.

But in all cases 'latest finish time' is 95th day.

h) Critical Path: Using the above example we can determine the longest cumulative duration of the project as the critical path. In our case cumulative ----- tasks. 1, 2, task 2, 3, task 3, 4, and task 4, 6. (Task 6, 10 is dummy) is the critical path. Any delay in this will delay the completion of the project as such.

I) Total slack: For any task, amount of time by which it can be delayed is called "slack period". This was already explained in 'g'.

These are three major types of Arrow Diagram. They are a) Normal Arrow Diagram This is the standard diagram. Here the arrows represent the activities. Nodes represent events, start and finish. The details of activities and duration are written on the arrows. This is the type we used for our example.

(1)

Activity Duration

(2)

27. Activity on Node Diagram :
Converting nodes as a rectangular box also and writing the details in that makes Arrow Diagrams. Here the arrows indicate the sequence. We can write the duration along with activity or on the arrow.
Details Details

3) Precedence Diagram
This is an improved version of 'Activity on Node' diagram. Normally we show activity by activity in an arrow diagram. Many times the next activity may have an overlap of the previous activity. The arrow can be used to indicate that.

3) Precedence Diagram
For example, in case of house constructions while the wall is constructed or concrete slab is cast, electrician comes with his conduit pipes for laying. This is an overlapping activity. Normally we may show "wall construction and then electrical work'. In this diagram, the above mentioned overlap can be shown in the arrow besides mentioning the activity in the box.

3) Precedence Diagram
But this would be confusing. Arrow Diagram is mainly made for time management. The people responsible for them know activity sequences. We need not try to bring everything less than one and get confused.

Step 1:
Like for other tools here too we need a proper team. Do not think Arrow Diagram is very complicated and we need experts to do that. All we need is people who are familiar with the process. Depending upon the problem, assemble a team, which consists of managers who take decisions and supervisors/operators who are involved with the implementation process. Select or decide a project co-ordinator.

Step 2 Let the team members be given time to think on the project and collect whatever data available. When the team is called for the meeting, let project co-ordinator have small cards or self adhesive pad with him for writing down the points. Carryout an initial discussion and ensure that all members understand the critical areas of the project.

Then carryout a brainstorming and collect the points (could be activities). Write down the points on a card or on a slip. Before that divide the card or slip into two sections as shown below

Write the points on the topside and the bottom side is for writing down the time period needed and sequence later on. While writing the cards we can also put remarks about the department or persons involved and any other relevant information. We may also use colour coding.

Step 3
Next job is arranging these cards according to their sequence. First find out the process wherein maximum number of cards can be placed sequentially. When you place them you should ask question. If it is necessary that this activity can be done only on completion of the previous activity i.e., establishing the relationship between preceding - succeeding activities listed in the card.

This will automatically help you to find out parallel activities.
Path A Path B

Path C
Path D Path E

and so on.

But this job is not easy as mentioned above. We may have to review the job cards many times. In this process we may find many gaps and duplications. Fill up the gaps and eliminate the duplication after discussion.

Next step is once again scrutinizing whether some of the paths can be merged and further sequentially arranged. This to ensure minimizing the number of parallel activities. Remember more the parallel activities more the number of people. Sequential arrangement helps to assign multi tasks to anyone as long as they need not be carried out simultaneously.

Once this is done, look for where the parallel paths fit in with the critical path. Critical path as mentioned earlier is the path with main activities, which are arranged sequentially for fulfilling the progress of the project, has to move unhindered. They may fit in as shown below: -

6

7

3

5

8

1

2

13

14

4

11

12

9

10

Step 4 - Deciding the time duration for each job.
As a first step, team should gather data on past performance of similar task. Study them carefully. Discuss about the problems faced and lapses on the planning etc. This will help to decide preparing a proper checklist and also a more meaningful time period needed for each task. Note down such information decided in the appropriate place. Best thing is marking this in the rough copy of the Diagram made in Step 3 as shown below

3 days

6
2 days

7
3 days

3
6 days 3 days

4 days

5

11days

8
13 days 6 days

1

2
5 days 9 days 10 days

13

14

11 days

4
6 days

11
3 days

12

9

5 days

10

Step 5: Finding out the shortest possible implementation schedule. Now the team should find out what is the shortest time by which project could be completed. This depends upon the longest cumulative duration of any path. That is the project's 'critical path'. Let us work it out for our example.

a) First let us take the top path. Job 1, 2 = 3 days Job 2, 3 = 6 days Job 3, 5 = 4 days Job 5, 8 = 11 days - parallel

job 5, 6 - 3 days Job 6, 7 - 3 days (3 + 3 = 6) Job 7,8 - dummy

This duration of 6 days is less Job 8, 13 = 13 days Job 13,14 = 6 days ----43 days -----

b) Let us check up the second path. Job 1, 2 = 3 days Job 2, 4 = 5 days Job 4, 11 = 9 days Parallel,

Job Job Job

4, 9 - 6 days 9,10 - 5 days 10, 11 - 3 days ----14 days -----

The duration of 14 days is more
Job 11, 12 = 10 days Job 12, 13 = 11 days Job 13, 14 = 6 days

Now add up 3 + 5 + 14 (Not 9) + 10 + 11 + 6 = 49 days. This is showing that the shortest time by which all the jobs can be executed is 49 days. This is the critical path of the project on which we should focus our attention. (Job 1,2; Job 2,4, Job 4,9, Job 9, 10, Job 11, 12, Job 11, 12, Job 12, 13 and Job 13, 14) Because any delay in any of these jobs in EP will affect our total throughput time.

Next step is checking up whether this time schedule is suiting our purpose.

Let us say that the project is to be completed on or before Independence Day in a particular year. If the time available from the day 1 is only 42 days, then we may have to re-look into our time schedule to find out whether any job can be made parallel to the critical path, or the possibility of cutting down executing time of the jobs etc.

We should also remember the point shown in 'Precedence Type Arrow diagram'. There, it was mentioned about the system for showing the over lapping job functions. We can see whether such thing is possible. But, if the time available is more than 49 days, then the present one fits into our schedule.

Step 6 Finding out the Earliest Starting Time (EST) and Earliest Finishing Time (EFT). This is not a difficult task. a) Job 1, 2 = Earliest Start Time = 0 day Job Duration = 3 days Earliest Finish time = 3 days

0

3

Prepare a box as shown here. Write it in the appropriate place

b) Job 2, 3 = EST Job duration EFT

-

3 days 6 days 9 days

3

9

c) Job 3, 5

EST Job duration EFT -

9 4 13

9

13

d) Job 5, 6

EST Job duration EFT -

13 2 15

13

15

e) Job 6, 7

EST Job duration EFT -

15 3 18

0

3

f) Job 7,8 EST 18 Job duration - 0 EFT 18
18

18

g) Job 5, 8

EST Duration EFT 13 24

-

13 11 24

h) Job 8, 13 EST Duration EFT 24 37

24 - 13 37

Now job 13, 14 cannot be completed until job 12, 13 is carried out. Hence let us fill it up afterwards. Now let us go to other parallel jobs. I) Job 2, 4 EST Duration EFT 3 3 5 8

8

j) Job 4, 11

EST Duration EFT
8

-

8 9 17

17

k) Job 4, 9

EST Duration EFT

14

8 6 14

8

l) Job 9, 10

EST Duration EFT

-

14 5 19

14

19

m) Job 10, 11 EST Duration EFT
19

-

19 3 22

22

Job 11, 12 can be taken up only on completion of Job 10,11, hence earliest starting time for Job 11, 12 are 22 and not 17 i.e., after completion of job 4, 11:
Job 11, 12 EST Duration EFT 22 10 32 22 32

Job 12, 13

EST Duration EFT

-

32 11 43

32

43

Now job 13,14 is in line with job 11, 12. It can be taken up any on completion of job 12, 13. Hence earliest starting time for that is 43.

Job 13, 14

EST Duration EFT 43 49

6 49

43

Step 7 Finding out the latest starting time (LST) and Latest Finishing Time. For this let us go backward. a) Job 13, 14 There is no slack time available for this Hence EST & LST is same i.e., 43 Similarly EFT & LFT is also same i.e., 49
43 43 49 49

Job 8, 13 for this EFT - 37.

24 37

But we cannot proceed to job 13, 14 till job 12, 13 are completed which will be on 43rd day. Hence 6 days are available as extra. Hence its LFT is 43rd and working backward LST is 30.

For job 5, 8 applying the same logic if we complete the Job 5, 11 by day 30 it will not affect the overall schedule i.e., the critical path. Hence LFT for that is 30 days and LST is 19 days.

13 19

24 30

For job 7, 8 - it is same as 8, 13 as it is dummy 24 30 37 30

For job 6, 7 - it has to be completed by day 30, hence LFT is 30 and LST is 27
15 27 18 30

For job 5, 6. It has to be completed by day 27 hence LFT is 27 days LST is 25 13 25

15 27

For job 3, 5 - It has to be completed by day 25 hence LFT is 25 and LST is 21

9 21

13 25

For job 2, 3 - It has to be completed by 21st day hence LFT is 21 and LST 15 days

3 15

9 21

Best for job 1, 2, EST and LST is same and so also LST and LFT

0 0

3 3

Now what is left out are job 12, 13, job 11, 12, job 10, 11, job 9, 10, job 4, 19, job 4, 11 and job 2, 4. Of these whatever jobs are in critical path no delay is permissible so EST and LST is same for them hence LST and LFT are also same. Except for job No.4, 11 all are as the critical path, hence no change For job 4, 11, it in 8 13 17 22

job 11, 12 can be started on 22 hence LFT for job 11 is 22 and working backward LST is 13. 8 13

17 22

This gives us EST, EFT, LST and LFT for the entire job, which is shown in the drawing. 3d 15 18 6 27 30 7

2d 15 27
4d 3 3d 1
0 3 0 3 9 13 21 25

13 25 11 d 13 5 19 24 30

18 18 0d 30 30

8 14 6 d 13
43 49 43 49

2 9d 4 6 d 8 14 8 14 9
8 17 13 22 11

10 d
22 32 19 32

12

5d
14 19 14 19

19 22 3 d 19 22

10

Step 8
Find out the slack time This is very easy. Find out the difference between EST and LST. That is the slack time for that job. As said earlier there is no slack time for jobs in critical path.

Step 9 Review Please critically scrutinize the Arrow Diagram so prepare with particular focus to critical path. Any time can be cut down. These will help to reduce the project time

Example – 2
Let us consider a simple project of changing the tyre of a car.

Step 1
i. First task is to break the project into activities and list them out.

Sl. No.
1. 2. 3.

Description of the activity

SucPrece Estimated -ding ceeding duration node time in mts. node 1 2 2 2 3 7 1.0 1.0 2.0

Remove Coat Take the Jack and lug wrench Get the spare tyre (Wheel)

4.
5. 6. 7.

Remove hub cap and loosen lug nuts
Position jack dummy Remove lug nuts Jack up car

3
4 4 5

4
5 6 6

1.5
0 1.0 2.0

8.
9. 10. 11.

Remove flat tyre
Place the spare in position Put the flat one away Lower the car

6
7 7 8

7
8 11 9

0.5
0.5 2.0 1.0

12.
13. 14. 15.

Tighten lug nuts dummy
Put jack away Final tightening and replacing hub cap Clean up and put on coat

9
9 10 11

10
11 11 12

0
1.0 2.0 2.0

Step 2
ii.“Determine the precedence relations among the activities. Search the list for initial activities which are to be first. “Remove Coat” happens to be the first. becomes the preceding node 1 The last activity is “clean up and put on coat”. It

Let us assign the last two nodes.

Now let us work back from the activity and see what precedes it. The order would be: a. Final tightening and Replacing hubcap. b. Put jack away c. Put flat tyre away. Let us give nodes or event numbers to the following activities.

a. Final tightening and replacing hubcap – 10 (10)
b. Put jack away – 9 c. Put flat tyres away – 7

We will now continue to work backward always looking for activities, which can immediately precede ones already assigned.

As we go through the process, we find it necessary to create two dummy activities. i.e., ( 4 and 5) and (9 and 100. We create “dummy (9-10) because activities “lower car” and tighten lug nuts” may be performed concurrently, but they both follow the activity „place spare in position‟ immediately. Again, both these activities immediately precede „final tighten and replace hubcap‟.

Here again we have to insert a dummy to avoid having „lower car‟ done concurrently with „final tightening and replacing hubcap‟. Similarly a dummy (4,5) is inserted to ensure that (3,4) precedes (5,6).

Step 3 When we have finished assigning node numbers to all events, we can draw the diagram in which arrows do not cross one another.

Arrow diagram for tyre changing project
4 6

3 1 2

5 7 8 10

9
11 12

Step 4
We have drawn the Arrow diagram without giving the time estimate for each activity. Now the next step is to estimate the duration of each activity. Time estimation for each activity must be made independently. In other words, it should be assumed that all resources required for every activity are all available when the project is started and will remain available until it is completed.

Example 3
Let us take an example from the industry. It is about manufacturing a low-pressure heater, which is a part of the feed-water system of a thermal power generating equipment of a 110 MW set.

As a first requirement let us list down the activities first. The main elements of a low-pressure heater are:

i. Tube nest
ii. Water chambers

iii. Shell
iv. Steam entrance chamber

.Tube nest elements i. Tube plate

Activities involved
(Gas cut tube plate machine

ii. Tube support plate
iii. Baffle plates iv. Anchoring piece, suspension eye, stiffness

tube plate drill tube plate
gas cut baffle plates drill baffle plates.

Prepare another piece suspension eye and stiffen weld.)

v. Hairpin tubes

2. Water chamber
i. Water chamber flange

Activities involved
Weld hair pin tubes assemble tube nest, expand tubes. (Gas cut flanges machine flanges gas cut to size dished end machine circumferentially (Gas cut role for branch fitting weld branch, suspension eye. Assemble water chamber.

ii. Dished end
iii. Branch of pipe, flange iv. Thermometer bush, partition wall

2. Shell
i. Shell flange ii. Dished end iii. Support plates

Activities involved
(Gas cut shell material. Prepare edge preparation on planer. Roll shells to diameter. Prepare support plates. Weld longitudinally. Weld circumferentially. Gas cut dished end. Machine circumference. Gas cut hole for drench fitting.

Weld branch.
Weld dished end to shell and Complete assembly

4. Steam entrance chamber

i. SEC shell
ii. Side plate

iii. Branch pipe,flange

Sequence
i. Tube nest ii. Water chamber iii. Tube nest testing with W.C.

iv. Shell assembly and test weld joints
v. Tube nest insertion into shell vi. Closing with W.C. vii. Final assembly

Arrow Diagram net-work for 110 MW low pressure heater manufacture (part of feed-water system)

Tube nest

Hair pin tubes Tube plate Baffle plats Stiffeners Anchor piece, suspension eye

Release Design & Procure

Process documents Dished end Flanges Branch

Materials

Water Chamber Shell

Partition plates, suspension eye

Shell (plate) Flange Dished end Branch Steam entrance chamber

Example 4
Task – to build an aircraft – broad machine network
2
Engine procurement Fuseling engine assembly

9
F.e. with final assly.

Fuseling assly.

1

4 Fuseling Plans drgs. specificatWing ions etc. sub.assly. 3

8 7
wing assly.

10

Wing final assly. Tail with final assly.

13

Equipment procurement

6 5

Tail assly.

11
12

Receipt of equipment

Activity No.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Description of Activity

Originate documents as per customer requirement Engine procurement initiation Engineering completion of plans and specifications Completion of fuselage drawings Submission of equipment requirements for procurement

6.
7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

Award of tail sub-contract
Award of wing sub-contract Fuselage assembly completion Fuselage engine assembly completion Wing assembly completion Tail assembly completion Receipts of equipment from supplier Final assembly and test.

Summary
Arrow diagram is meant for helping people to ensure work schedule so that the project is carried out according to a plan. With the help of a critical path one can find out the effect of any unforeseen delay on the project. Another great advantage of this method is we can place orders for materials needed for the project at the right time. This will help to cut down unnecessary inventory at the work place which will not only save the inventory cost but will also minimise pilferage and damages to the materials. Even the people needed can be called just in time.

Summary
As we will be meticulously planning every step of the total operation we can get an insight about the project which will help in a breakthrough. By looking at the drawing people generally feel that it is a very complicated process. In actual fact Arrow Diagram is very simple, logical and a very powerful tool. Managers will get immense benefit by using them regularly for important assignments.

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