- shanmuganathan.k


If Alexander Graham Bell were somehow transported to the 21st century, he would not recognize the components of modern telephony – cell phones, texting, cell towers, GPRS etc. while Thomas a. Edison, one of the grid’s key early architects, would be totally familiar with the Grid!

A system of synchronized power providers and consumers connected by transmission and distribution lines and operated by one or more control centers.

Grid Facts…
Centrally planned and controlled infrastructure. Aged About 120 years… Largely before the age of microprocessors.

Grid Facts…
Peak demand exceeded transmission growth by almost 20% every year. Spending on R & D, toward innovation and renewal is among the lowest of all industries.

Grid Facts…
Demand has skyrocketed, but underinvestment in T&D sector. Hence, outages and power quality issues are to cost our business in crores of rupees, each year.

Challenges, We are facing…

If the grid were just 5% more efficient, the energy savings would equate to permanently eliminating the fuel and green house gas emissions from millions of cars.

Many massive blackouts over the past 40 years. Due to the slow response times of mechanical switches, a lack of automated analytics, and “poor visibility” – a “lack of situational awareness” on the part of grid operators.

Could not conveniently accommodate non-conventional energy resources without a price to power Quality. Quality power is becoming a dream!

Cost of electricity has doubled of more in real terms. Less visible but just as harmful, the costs with an underperforming grid are borne by every citizen.

Centralized structure leaves us open to attack. A cascading series of failures that could bring our nation’s banking, communication, traffic, and security systems etc., to complete standstill.

In 2000, the one hour outage that hit the Chicago board of trade resulted in 20 trillion dollars in trades delayed. The northeast blackout of 2003 resulted in a 6 billion dollars economic loss to the region.

We still produce electricity by burning coal, a rich domestic resource but a major contributor to global warming. To reduce our carbon footprint and stake claim to global leadership, clean, renewable sources of energy must be integrated in to our grid.

In short, our grid is struggling to keep up!

THEN . . . what is the alternate ?

 Broad

range of technical solutions that optimize the energy value chain. electricity aided by ‘ digital technology ’ to save energy, reduce cost and increase reliability.

 Delivers

Smart grid: the visions
 Self

healing and adaptive  Interactive with consumers and markets  Optimized to make best use of resources  Predictive rather than reactive  Distributed across geographical boundaries  Quality focused, in power supplied  Resist attack  Green

Self healing
 Automatically

avoids or mitigate power outages, power quality problems. real time information from embedded sensors and automated switches. real-time strategies using ‘ Autonomous reinforcement learning controllers ’ to govern the behavior of an ever changing grid.

 Uses

 Applies

Interaction with consumers
 Tools

to exploit real-time electricity pricing, incentive-based load reduction signals, or emergency load reduction signals. technology to control “smart appliances” in homes, interconnecting energy management systems in “smart buildings” and enabling consumers to better manage energy use and reduce energy costs.

 Incorporates

Optimized resources
 Optimizes

capital assets.

 minimizing

O&M costs and power flows, reduce waste and maximize use of lowest-cost generation resources. local distribution with interregional energy flows and transmission traffic, improves use of existing grid assets and reduces grid congestion and bottlenecks.

 Balancing

 Senses

overloads and reroutes power to prevent or minimize a potential outage. autonomously when conditions require resolution faster than humans can respond…and cooperatively.

 Works

 Accepts

energy from all fuel sources including solar and wind as easily and transparently as coal and natural gas. of integrating all better ideas and technologies – as they are marketproven and ready to come online.

 Capable

Quality focused
 Power

delivered – free of sags, spikes, disturbances and interruptions. power our increasingly digital economy and the data centers, computers and electronics necessary to make it run.

 To

Resist attack
 Increasingly

resistant to attack and natural disasters, since decentralized and reinforced with Smart Grid security protocols. identification and respond to manmade or natural disruptions. information enables grid operators to isolate affected areas and redirect power flows around damaged facilities.

 Better

 Real-time

 Slow

down the advance of global climate change a genuine path toward significant environmental improvement.

 Offers

Smart grid: the Features

Load adjustment

Mathematical algorithms predict how many standby generators need to be used, to reach a certain success rate. Warns all smart appliances, or another larger customer, to reduce the load temporarily or continuously. The load reduction by even a small portion of the clients may eliminate the problem.

Demand response support

Allows generators and loads to interact in an automated fashion in real time. Allows users to cut their energy bills by telling low priority devices to use energy only when it is cheapest.

Decentralization of Generation
Distributed generation allows individual consumers to generate power onsite, using whatever generation method they find appropriate. Allows individual loads to tailor their generation directly, making them independent from grid power failures.

Price signaling to consumers

Double tariff electricity meters to encourage people to use their electric power during off-peak time in many countries. In a smart grid, the price could be changing in seconds and electric equipment is given methods to react on that with personal preferences of customers.

How things work?

Integrated communications
► Now,

communications are up to date, but not integrated because they’ve been developed in an incremental fashion. communications will allow for real-time control, information and data exchange to optimize system reliability, utilization, and security using technologies like BPL,OFC, HAN etc.,

► Integrated

Sensing and Measurement
► Advanced

microprocessor meters (Smart meters) ► Wide-Area Monitoring Systems ► Phasor Measurement Units ► Time-of-use and real-time pricing tools ► Advanced switches and cables ► Digital protection relays

Smart Meters

Conventional EM Meter

Smart Meter

Smart meters

Replaces analog mechanical meters with digital meters that record usage in real time. Provides a communication path extending from generation plants to electrical outlets (smart sockets) and other smart grid-enabled devices. By customer option, such devices can signal shut down during times of peak demand.

Phasor measurement units

High speed sensors distributed throughout their network. monitors power quality and in some cases respond automatically to them. Phasors of alternating current, are identical every-where on the network and confirm to the most desirable shape. The clock pulses from GPS satellites could be used for very precise time measurements in the grid.


► 24

satellites are orbiting the earth about 12,000 miles above us (full constellation achieved in 1994) ► Time accuracy +/-0.2µs over a wide area ► Opens up new possibilities for a secure and reliable operation of electric power system

Synchronized phasor measurements Synchronized phasor measurements
GPS Time Receiver
Time, sync
60 Hz component

DFT Symmetrical Component

Voltage, Current


Frequency & Rate-ofChange of Frequency Algorithm
Positive Sequence Phasors Frequency, dFreq/dt


Power System

Time synchronized sampling of three phase waveform. 12 samples/cycle (720/sec). Discrete Fourier Transform uses 12 samples for each phasor conversion.

Real Time Data Output Disturbance and transient detectors, data table storage
Trigger flags

Phasor measurement system Phasor measurement system

Enables operators to start effective countermeasures in time

Advanced Components
► Innovations

in superconductivity, Storage, power electronics, and diagnostics components are changing fundamental abilities and characteristics of grids. include: FACTS, HVDC, first and second generation superconducting wires etc.,

► Technologies

Advanced Control
► Distributed

Intelligent Agents (control systems) Tools (software algorithms and high-speed computers) Applications (SCADA, substation automation, demand response, etc).

► Analytical

► Operational

Improved Interfaces

Visualization techniques that reduce large quantities of data into easily understood visual formats. Software systems that provide multiple options when systems operator actions are required. Simulators for operational training and “what-if ” analysis, determine the optimal control solution.

Role of synchronized measurements in Power system visibility
Combination displays

Role of synchronized measurements in Power system visibility

By capturing the geographic variation of the phase angle over the region, one can identify the prevailing direction of power flow through the system.

In this Figure larger angles are shaded in yellow and orange, and smaller angles are shaded in blue.

Advancements in Development

Zero-net energy commercial buildings:
Whether measured by cost, energy, or carbon emissions, structures equipped with smart grid technologies capable of balancing energy generation and energy conservation.

Energy storage:
While electricity cannot be economically stored, energy can be - with the application of smart technologies. Thermal storage and lithium-ion batteries for PHEV hold promising potential for positively affecting peak load today

Superconducting power cables:
Capable of reducing line losses and carrying 3-5 times more power in a smaller right way than traditional copper-based cable.

Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles:

PHEV is a hybrid vehicle with batteries that can be recharged by connecting a plug to an electric power source Compared to conventional vehicles, PHEVs can reduce air pollution, dependence on petroleum, and greenhouse gas emissions

Distributed Energy resources

Micro turbines (small combustion turbines that produce between 25 kW and 500 kW of power) Dual-fuel combined power and heat (CHP) systems (utilizing the by-product methane generated from a water treatment plant operation) Backup generators Wind Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) Fuel cells Solar panels

    

Smart grid Smart grid

GRID Today Vs Tomorrow Characteristic Active participation Today's Grid Smart Grid

Consumers are uniformed and nonparticipative with power system

Informed, involved, and active consumers-demand response and distributed energy resources Many distributed energy resources with plug-and-play convenience focus on renewables

Accommodatio Dominated by central n generation-many

obstacles exist for distributed energy resources interconnection
Power quality

Focus on outagesTop priority with a slow response to variety of power quality issues quality/price options

GRID Today Vs Tomorrow Characteristic Optimizing assets Today's Grid Smart Grid

Little integration of Greatly expanded operational data with data acquisition of asset managementgrid parameters – business process focus on prevention, minimizing impact to consumers Responds to prevent Automatically detects further damageand responds to focus is on protecting problems-focus on assets following fault prevention, minimizing impact to consumers Vulnerable to malicious acts of Resilient to attack and natural disasters




Lack of coordinated strategies Cost Consumer privacy Infrastructure Issues

Smart Grid in Service

Enel S.P .A, in Italy by Telegestore The city of Austin, Texas, US Colorado Hydro One, in Ontario, Canada by Boulder DMS Platform by the University of Hawaii Perfect Power by Illinois Institute of Technology West Virginia Super Circuit by Allegheny Energy Beach Cities MicroGrid by San Diego Gas & Electric

 

“If we all did the things we are capable of doing, we would literally astound ourselves.” Thomas a. Edison (18471931)

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