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GROUP: CEMPAKA PUTIH

MEMBERS
FADILAH BINTI MAHMUD MASZAWANI BT ABD WAHAB HANIDA BT NOR AZLAN NUR HATIKAH BINTI MOHAMAD 5/24/12

MATRIC NUMBER
D20091035094 D20091035110 D20091035129 D2OO91035115

Presenting to you..

OUR PROBLEM BASED LEARNING ( SUPERWOMAN UNDER PRESSURE)


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SUPERWOMAN UNDER PRESSURE FILA CHART


NO. 1. FACTS Her son weight was 2.1 kg IDEAS LEARNING ISSUES ACTION

Cempaka cannot adapt What types of chemical Searching to the new environment. substances in internet and environment that can biology book. affect pregnant woman?

Her son lacks of nutrition How the nutrition intake when he was born. of mother affect the infant? Her son was born prematurely. What are the causes of premature baby?

Cempaka did not have Why proper intake of proper food intake during food is essential for pregnancy. pregnant woman? Cempaka has diseases, What are the common disorders and bad habits type of diseases, during pregnancy. disorders and bad habits those bring to low-weigh baby born?

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LEAD MERCURY

WHAT TYPES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES IN ENVIRONMENT THAT CAN AFFECT PREGNANT WOMEN?

ARSENIC

PESTICIDES AND POLLUTION FACTORS

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LEAD

Is the metal that found for many years in gasoline and house paint Poses health risks for everybody with young children and unborn baby at greatest rate Exposure to high level of lead during pregnancy contribute to:
PRETERM BIRTH

INFANT DEVELOPMENT DELAY

LOW BIRTH WEIGHT

MISCARRIAGE

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SOURCES OF LEAD IN HOME


Lead crystal glassware Some arts and crafts supplies

Some ceramic dishes

Cosmetics material

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MERCURY

Elemental (pure) mercury and methylmercury are two forms of mercury that may also pose risks in pregnancy.
Source of mercury: Dental amalgam is a silver-colored material used to fill cavities in teeth.

Source of methylmercury: Methylmercury formed when mercury in the air is deposited in water.

Comes from natural sources (such as volcanoes) and man-made sources (such as burning coal and other industrial pollution).

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ARSENIC

Enter the environment through natural sources(weathering of rock and forest fires) and man-made sources(mining and electronics manufacturing). Increase risk of pregnancy complications, including miscarriage and birth defects.

Sources:
Agricultural areas Live near hazardous waste sites

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PESTICIDES AND POLLUTION FACTORS

Pregnant women also must reduce themselves to pesticide and pollution factors

They can reduce the outdoor activities

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MALNUTRITION? UNDERWEIGHT PREGNANT WOMEN?

PHASES OF MALNUTRITION?

HOW THE NUTRITION INTAKE OF MOTHER AFFECTS THE INFANT?

5 OBESE PREGNANT
WOMEN?

EFFECTS OF MALNUTRITION TO MOTHER AND INFANT?

PLACENTA?

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MALNUTRITION?

The condition that developed when?

Body does not get the right enough amount of vitamins, minerals and other nutrients

Needed to maintain healthy tissues and organ functions

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PHASES OF MALNUTRITION?

DURING PREGNANCY

EARLY CHILDHOOD

DURING LACTATION

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EFFECTS OF MALNUTRITION TO MOTHER AND INFANT?

LOW BIRTH WEIGHT POOR GROWTH RATE WEAK IMMUNE SYSTEM LOW IQ 5/24/12

GREATER RISK TO ILLNESS LOW STAMINA LEVEL LESS HEIGHT

PREMATURE DELIVERY HARD LABOR BIRTH DEFECTS DEATH

PLACENTA?

Is the metabolic organ with about 60 sets of enzymes, hormones, nutrients, protein molecules Transfer into the fetal bloodstream

Less mother nutrients' stores cause unwell-developed placenta

Fetus does not gain optimal nourishment thus unable to reach full potential, low weight, and exposed to health risks

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OBESE PREGNANT WOMEN?

The infant always bigger than the normal baby, born late and might be large in size even born prematurely The birth also requires drugs or surgical intervention

Often suffer gestational diabetes, hypertension and infections after birth Advised to take essential nutrients from nutrient-dense foods and good quality supplement

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UNDERWEIGHT PREGNANT WOMEN?

Fail to gain adequate weight during pregnancy

Low birth weight baby (less than 2500g) at full-term

Leads to unavoidable health problems of baby and most die in first year of life Mother are advised to consume extra amount of nutrition to gain ideal weight 5/24/12

NUTRITIONS Carbohydrates, fats and proteins

FOOD TYPE Oils, butter, nuts. Meat, eggs, fish, bean.

FUNCTIONS for lactation.

Bread, potatoes, pasta, corn, rice, whole grain.Babys growing, stimulate milk production

Fiber Calcium

Whole grain breads, rice, pasta, fruits, vegetablesReduce constipation during pregnancy and cereals. Calcium-rich milk At least 4 serving per day (1000-1300mg). Forms baby and mother skeleton and teeth.

Iron

Broccoli, spinach, whole grain bread.

Provide body with extra blood needed for placenta and baby. Supply babys ion stores needed in the liver.

Vitamin C and A

Oranges, strawberry, papaya, broccoli, greenVitC- helps to develop cells, grow teeth pepper, grapefruits (vitamin C). Spinach, carrots,and bones. sweet potatoes, pumpkins (vitamin A). Vit A-forms new tissues and connective tissues and help mother to absorb iron.

Folic acid/ vitamin B9

Green vegetables, orange juice, barley beans,Development of babys nervous system, rice and peas. prevent neural tube defects and congenital malformation in baby.

Prenatal vitamin supplement

Increase the amount of vitamins and minerals or required nutrients. Must consult a doctor.

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WHAT ARE THE CAUSES OF PREMATURE BABY?

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WHAT IS THE PREMATURE BABY?


q

Pregnancy normally lasts about 40 weeks. q A baby born 3 or more weeks early is premature. q Babies who are born closer to 32 weeks (just over 7 months) may not be able to eat, breathe, or stay warm on their own. q Babies born earlier than 26 weeks (just under 6 months) are the most likely to have serious problems. q Doctors and nurses often call premature babies "preemies."

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PROBLEMS WITH THE PLACENTA

CAUSES OF PREMATURE BABY

PROBLEMS WITH UTERUS OR CERVIX

PREGNANCY WITH TWIN OR MORE

USE DRUG AND ALCOHOL DURING PREGNANCY

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PROBLEMS WITH THE PLACENTA

Placenta abruption : Placenta abruption is the process in which the placenta peels away from the uterine wall It will increased the potential for a mother to have premature birth 10 percent of placenta abruption has cause premature birth Immediate delivery by inducing labor or cesarean birth. The drug of corticosteroids will be used to help the babys lung become matured and reduce the risk of infant death.

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USE DRUG AND ALCOHOL DURING PREGNANCY

Malformations of developing fetuss body such as heart. Alcohol also will breaks down chemically to a cell-damaging compound that is readily absorbed by the fetus. Bodys cant eliminate the dangerous substances as effectively the mothers body does. Actually the effect to pregnancy happen due to the type of drugs used by mother, but in general taking drugs can lead to the premature birth. 5/24/12

PROBLEMS WITH UTERUS OR CERVIX

Weakened cervix Softens late in pregnancy and begins to dilate when contractions begin. Baby grows and begins to push on the cervix, it begins to open too early, before the baby is ready to be born.
An usual shape of uterus Not be able to expand larger as the fetus grows up. The birth occur without waiting for the right time. 5/24/12

PREGNANCY WITH TWIN OR MORE

Limited space that they have in their mummys tommy. If they still grow up until completely, it is impossible for their mother to support their body size in just one tummy.

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Why proper intake of food is essential for pregnant woman?

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Scientific fact that the nutritional status of the pregnant woman will affects the outcome of pregnancy. Increased risk for infant death or development disabilities. Body will undergoes many changes to allow for the growth of fetus.

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Mother need to consume a diet rich in vegetables, fruit and whole gains. Take a daily vitamin and mineral supplement to guarantee adequate intake of iron and folic acid. Take lots of fibre and increase fluid in the body to avoid constipation.

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Constipation not just uncomfortable but it lead to reduced appetite and food intake those will have nutritional consequences Fetus does not get enough nutrition for it growth and causing it lack of nutrition and low weight when he was born

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AS THE COUNSELORs OF UNIVERSITY OF LONDON INTERNATIONAL OFFICE, WE SUGGEST: BREASTMILK PROVIDE:

1BREASTFED
HER BABY

right nutrients in the right proportion better digestion, stimulate bowel function, movement, hormone and enzyme production. enhance healthy population of microorganisms(bowel flora) good growth rate less illness

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fewer infections and allergic problems (ex: pneumonia, ear infection, asthma, eczema) higher development and intelligence test results better visual development and eyesight reduce risk of stop-breathing attack reduce convulsions reduce unexplained cot death

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BRING HER SON FOR FURTHER MEDICAL HELPS

TAKE ADEQUATE AMOUNT OF NUTRITION FOR HIGHNUTRITIONAL LACTATION. SHE SHOULD PROVIDE SUITABLE ENVIRONMENTS FOR SONS PROPER GROWTH

THANKS:
FOR YOUR ATTENTIONS, COOPERATIONS, KINDNESS AND EVALUATIONS.

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