## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Click to edit Master subtitle style

5/24/12

Problem 8.4

Consider an 8-pixel line of intensity data, {108,139,135,244,172,173,56,99}. If it is quantized with IGS quantization with 4 bit accuracy, compute the rms error and rms signal to noise ratios for the quantized data.

5/24/12

5/24/12

5/24/12

• What is the maximum compression that can be expected? The maximum compression with Huffman coding is C = 8/5.3 bits/pixel entropy is to be Huffman coded.Problem 8.3 =1. 5/24/12 • .5 A 1024*1024 8 bit image with 5.509.

For instance. 5/24/12 • .• If a greater level of lossless compression is required. compute the differences between adjacent pixels and Huffman code them. what else can be done? One possibility is to eliminate spatial redundancies in the image before Huffman encoding.

Problem 8.9 Consider the simple 4*8. 8-bit image: 21 212195169 243 243 243 21212195169 243 243 243 21212195169 243 243 243 21212195169 243 243 243 5/24/12 .

125 0.375 Probability 5/24/12 .Compute the entropy of the image • Total number of pixel = 32 Grey level R1 R2 R3 R4 21 95 169 243 Value 0.375 0.125 0.

Compression: 5/24/12 .Compress the image using Huffman Coding. and compute the compression achieved.

What is the entropy of the image when looked at as pairs of pixel? 5/24/12 .

811−1.• The difference between this value and the entropy in first part tells us that a mapping can be created to eliminate (1. Difference image: 21 0 0 74 21 0 0 74 21 0 0 74 21 0 0 74 5/24/12 • 74 74 0 0 74 74 0 0 74 74 0 0 74 74 0 0 .56 bits/pixel of spatial redundancy.25) =0.

leaving only (1.25) = 0.16 bits/pixel.The entropy of the difference image: Difference removes most of the spatial redundancy. 5/24/12 .41−1.

If you assume 7-bit ASCII.19 Use the LZW coding algorithm to encode the ASCII string “aaaaaaaaaaa”.Problem 8. the first 128 locations are all that are needed. • Assume that the first 256 codes in the starting dictionary are the ASCII codes. the ASCII ”a” corresponds to location 97. 5/24/12 . In either case.

.5/24/12 The encoded output is : 97 256 257 258 97.

Problem (10.2) • 5/24/12 1515 .

2) • mask 5/24/12 1616 .Solution (10.

Solution (10. Conversely. the response would be a +2 when a mask is centered on a one-pixel gap in a 3pixel segment oriented in the direction favored by that mask.2) Cond… • Each mask would yield a value of 0 when centered on a pixel of an unbroken 3-pixel segment oriented in the direction favored by that mask. 1717 • 5/24/12 .

Problem (10.5) Suppose that we compute the gradient magnitude of each of the these models Using the Prewitt operator . 5/24/12 1818 . sketch what a horizontal profile through the center of each gradient image would look like.

Solution (10.5) • -1 -1 -1 0 0 0 1 1 1 5/24/12 1919 .

Cond(10.5)… 5/24/12 2020 .

Problem(10.22) • 5/24/12 2121 .

22) Y=ax+b b -b/a Normal form xcosθ + ysinθ = ρ 5/24/12 2222 .Solution (10.

22) • 5/24/12 2323 .Solution (10.

5/24/12 2424 .39) • Segment the image shown by using the split and merge procedure .Problem(10. Show the quad tree corresponding to the your segmentation.

39) • 5/24/12 2525 .Solution (10.

Solution (10.39) 5/24/12 2626 .

49) • 5/24/12 2727 .Problem(10.

49)-(a) • Determine the maximum value of K that will guarantee that the blur from motion does not exceed 1 pixel.Problem(10. 5/24/12 2828 .

098 cm/pixel.Solution (10. Thus.5 cm long. the distance between pixels 25/256=0. Because the imaging device is square (256 ×256 elements) the camera looks at an area that is 25cm×25cm. assuming no optical distortions.49)-(a) It is given that 10% of the image area in the horizontal direction is occupied by a bullet that is 2. 5/24/12 2929 .

the bullet will travel 100. (1.000/0. At this speed.98 = 1. K ≤ 9. 3030 5/24/12 .(a)) The maximum speed of the bullet 1000m/sec = 100. Here it is required that the bullet should not travel more than one pixel during exposure.02×10^6 pixels/sec) ×K sec ≤ 1 pixel.000 cm/sec. So.02×10^6 pixels/sec. That is.Solution Cond…(49.8×10−7 sec.

Problem(10.49)-(b) • Determine the minimum number of frames per second that would have to be acquired in order to calculate the speed of the bullet. 5/24/12 3131 .

5/24/12 3232 .49)-(b) • The frame rate must be fast enough to capture at least two images of the bullet in successive frames so that the speed can be computed.Solution (10.

g. Although these cases could be handled with some processing (e.Solution Cond…(49. leading and trailing edges. as in the case of A and E. and so forth) 3333 • 5/24/12 . In the other cases we get partial bullets..(b)) • If the frame rate is set so that the bullet cannot travel a distance longer (between successive frames) than one half the width of the image. by determining size.

(b)) The length of the bullet in pixels is (2. Because the bullet travels at a maximum speed of 1. One half of the image frame is 128 pixels.Solution Cond…(49. so the maximum travel distance allowed is 102 pixels. The minimum frame rate 1.098cm/pixel) ≈ 26 pixels. 3434 5/24/12 .02×106 pixels/sec.5cm)/ (0.02×106/102 = 106frames/sec.

Starting at different locations in this set does not change the structure of the circular sequence. 5/24/12 . Even if the starting point is not unique.1 Show that redefining the starting point of a chain code so that the resulting sequence of a no. this method would still give a unique sequence. The code for a boundary that is traced in a consistent manner (e.. For example.g.Problem 11. Solution: The key to this problem is to recognize that the value of every element in a chain code is relative to the value of its predecessor. Selecting the smallest integer as the starting point simply identifies the same point in the sequence. but they all yield the same smallest integer 010101. the sequence 101010 has three possible starting points. clockwise) is a unique circular set of numbers. forms an integer of min magnitude makes the code independent of the initial starting point on the boundary .

6 Find an expression for the signature of the boundary of an equilateral triangle and plot the signature.Problem 11. Solution: we see that the distance from the origin to the triangle is given by r(μ) =D0/cos μ 0± · μ < 60± =D0/cos(120± ¡ μ) < 120± μ < 180± μ < 240± μ < 5/24/12 300± =D0/cos(180± ¡ μ) =D0/cos(240± ¡ μ) =D0/cos(300± ¡ μ) 120± · 180± · 240± · 60± · μ .

and D = D0= cos(60±) = 2D0. 5/24/12 .whereD0 is the perpendicular distance from the origin to one of the sides of the triangle. Once the coordinates of the vertices of the triangle are given. determining the equation of each straight line is a simple problem. and D0 (which is the same for the three straight lines) follows from elementary geometry.

) A square Solution: 5/24/12 .) A circle b.7: Draw the medial axis of a.Problem 11.

16 Obtain the gray level co-occurrence matrix of 5*5 image composed of a checkerboard of alternating 0’s and 1’s if The position operator p is defined as “one pixel to the right” Solution: The image is 01010 10101 01010 10101 01010 5/24/12 .Problem 11.

Similarly. and a22 = 0 The total number of pixels satisfying the predicate P is 20. a11 = 0. Element a11 is the number of pixels valued 0 located one pixel to the right of a 0. a21 = 10.Let z1 = 0 and z2 = 1. a12 = 10. By inspection. Since there are only two gray levels the matrix A is of order 2x2 . so C= 0 1/2 1/2 0 5/24/12 .

- A STUDY OF VARIOUS IMAGE COMPRESSION TECHNIQUESjadolyo
- o 0342085098International Journal of computational Engineering research (IJCER)
- Associate Expertise Exploitation Results Reality Fashionsfofoby
- Implementation of Low Bit Rate Vocoder for Speech CompressionIRJET Journal
- IAS-Mains-Electrical-Engineering-2012.pdfR Aditya Vardhana Reddy
- FE S1 1516_finalChristian Adkins
- 1thirujpccse
- Data_Compression_in_Multimedia_Text_Imag.pdfគាំ ពិសេស
- Data Cleaning and Data Pre Processingnnsami
- OHallaron-scecahm-july06.pdfConor Alg
- Compression Systems 123456Priyanka Chauhan
- A Picture is Worth Thousand WordsRinku Raichel
- DC 3 SourceCodingNguyễn Văn Toàn
- [IJCST-V5I1P3]:H.N.Meenakshi, P.NagabushanEighthSenseGroup
- Efficient Arithmetic Coder Design for SPIHT Image CompressionInternational Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology
- DC-CH02fidabimee
- t 4408103107Anonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- sound and multi mediaKwesi Setsoafia Agudetse
- Ch_04 Arithmetic Coding (PPT)Sandhya Pandey
- video stagnography pdf.pdfShagunChoudhary
- Chrome is About to Get a Lot Faster With New Compression AlgorithmDaniel Giaj-Levra Lavieri
- Info on Blue Ray Discincrediblevaibhav
- Lecture06 PCMGlaiza Guileb
- Discrete control systemRam Kumar
- Project Titles IEEE 2014Latha Rajamanickam R
- helpFFmpegleandrodelucas
- 7_7725_PAMOD_02EJose Luna
- F Multimedia Note-2018Sanjay Kumar Nayak
- Exp1 Sampling QuantizationAmylegesse01

- Personalized Reduced 3-Lead System formation methodology for Remote Health Monitoring Applications and Reconstruction of Standard 12-Lead systemiMedPub
- Fingerprint Minutiae Extraction and Compression using LZW AlgorithmInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development
- Improving quality of image in Permutation-Only Image Encryption SchemesInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development
- As 1012.8.1-2000 Methods of Testing Concrete Method of Making and Curing Concrete - - Compression and IndirecSAI Global - APAC
- Fastvdo LLCPriorSmart
- Library of Congress Recommended Format SpecificationsLJ's infoDOCKET
- Digital Watermarking TrendsWhite Globe Publications (IJORCS)
- Multimedia Patent Trust v. LG Electronics et. al.PriorSmart
- Fastvdo LLCPriorSmart
- Design and Evaluation of High Speed Parallel Multiplier Using Low Power Data CompressorsInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development
- Marco Arment 2006 resumeashontell
- As NZS 4230.2-1994 Information Technology - Coding of Moving Pictures and Associated Audio for Digital StoragSAI Global - APAC
- tmpA5C9.tmpFrontiers
- Content-Based Image Retrieval Using Features Extracted From Block Truncation CodingInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development
- A Review Paper on Video Compression Using Motion Compensation and SPIHTInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development
- As NZS 4473.1-1997 Information Technology - Digital Compression and Coding of Continuous-Tone Still Images ReSAI Global - APAC
- A Survey on Text Segmentation Methods for Digital ImagesInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development
- Video Conferencing without PcInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development
- A Review on Image Compression using DCT and DWTInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development
- 2008-03-10 Dennis Montgomery Declaration (Montgomery v eTreppid)Jack Ryan
- As NZS 2299.2-2002 Occupational Diving Operations Scientific DivingSAI Global - APAC
- Implementation of Feed Forward Neural Network for Image Compression on FPGAInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development
- Comparative analysis of image compression techniquesInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development
- Fastvdo LLCPriorSmart
- Fastvdo LLCPriorSmart
- An Effective Implementation of Configurable Motion Estimation Architecture for Block Matching AlgorithmInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development
- Motion Estimation in H.264/Avc by 2d Logarithmic Search AlgorithmInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development
- Fastvdo LLCPriorSmart
- Energy-Efficient Image Transmission over OFDM Channel Using Huffman CodingInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development
- Central-Maine-Power-Co-Prescriptive-Compressed-AirGenability

- LinX Imaging PresentationMacRumors
- Smart Fire Detection System using Image ProcessingInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development
- Intensification of old documents and photos by Digital Image Processing TechniquesInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development
- Study of Adaptive contrast enhancement techniques for images by using RetinexInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development
- Medical Image Denoising using Spatial Filtering TechniquesInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development
- Visual Cryptography Technique for Banking ApplicationInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development
- A Survey on Moving Object Detection in Static and Dynamic Background for automated video analysisInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development
- tmpE349Frontiers
- Image Steganography Using Variable-Rate LSB ApproachInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development
- Facebook Timeline For Pages - Product Guide - from TechCrunchTechCrunch
- A Learning Model for DSP on FPGA Case Study on Real Time Digital Video FilterInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development
- An Effective Image Watermarking Using Weighted Median PredictionInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development
- Smart License Plate Recognition System based on Image ProcessingInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development
- OCR for Gujarati Numeral using Neural NetworkInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development
- tmpDF60.tmpFrontiers
- Classification and Detection of Plant Leaf DiseaseInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development
- Study of Image Inpainting Technique Based on TV ModelInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development
- A Survey on Text Segmentation Methods for Digital ImagesInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development
- tmpD328.tmpFrontiers
- tmpBEFC.tmpFrontiers
- Persistent Surveillance Systems BrochureLeakSourceInfo
- Multiple Person Tracking with Shadow Removal Using Adaptive Gaussian Mixture Model in Video SurveillanceInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development
- Introduction to Wavelet Transform and Two Stage Image DE noising Using Principal Component Analysis with Local Pixel Grouping (LPGPCA) methodInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development
- A Review About Digital Image Segmentation TechniquesInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development
- A Survey of different Data Hiding Techniques in Digital ImagesInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development
- tmpAFE2Frontiers
- New Image Steganography by Secret Fragment Visible Mosaic Image for Secret Image HidingInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development
- tmp121CFrontiers
- tmp6AB4.tmpFrontiers
- Tmp 5693Frontiers

Sign up to vote on this title

UsefulNot usefulClose Dialog## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Loading