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Isotopes are atoms of an elements that have the same proton number(Z) but a different nucleon number(A) Unstable isotopes which decay and give out radioactive emissions Naturally occurring or artificially produced
Emits radioactive radiation which have different penetrating ability with materials of different thickness and densities Kill cells Cause cell mutation Ionize molecules Its activity decreases with time.
Magnesium-24 is bombarded by a neutron, sodium-24 can be produced. Beryllium-7is produced when boron10 captures a proton
Medicine Agriculture Archaeology Industries Food preservation
Uses radiation to provide information about the function of the specific organs of a patient or to treat disease A radioisotope is taken in by a patient The radiation emitted enables organs to be easily imaged by imaging equipment Disorders can then be detected and treated
Thrombosis Sodium-24 is injected into the bloodstream to detect the position of blood clots or thrombosis in the blood vessels. Brain tumour Can be detected and treated by using phosphorus-32. Sterilisation Radioisotope cobalt-60 is used to sterelise medical equipments
Study the effectiveness of fertilisers Nitrogen-15 or phosphorus-32 is added to soil water After the plant absorbed the soil water, the radioisotopes can track uptake of fertiliser from root to leaves Radioisotopes are used to kill pests and parasites and to control the ripening of fruits. Induced genetic mutation in a plant Better strain Higher resistance against diseases
Carbon-14 is a radioisotope with a half-life of 5730 years and decays by emitting beta particles. Living animals and plants have a known proportion of carbon-14 in their tissues which remains constant and decreases when they die. The amount of carbon-14 left in a decayed plant or animal can be used to tell its age.
Sodium -24 are used to locate the source of leakage in underground pipes. Iron radioisotope are used to determine the rate of corrosion of valves in motor vehicles. Gamma rays are used in the control of the thickness of paper, metal and plastic.
Underground pipe leaks Tracer will be added to the liquid in the pipe Detector is moved along the pipe The count rate will increase as there is large amount of water
The manufacture of aluminium foil β emitter is placed above the foil and a detector below it. Some β particle will penetrate the foil and the amount of radiation is monitored by the computer The computer will send a signal to the roller to make the gap smaller or bigger based on the count rate.
Gamma rays are used to sterilize food in a closed container.
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Instruction : Student divide themselves into 5 groups. Each group are provided with one mahjong paper. Discuss with your friend about the problem given. Present it in front of the class.
Pak Mat lives in terrace house. As usually at the end of each month he needs to pay their bills at the post office. But he feels shock for the amount that he needs to pay for water in that particular month. This is because the amount exceeds RM200 not as usual. In your opinion how this problem could be happen? As a science student can you help Pak mat? In a group suggest the best method that you can help him. Explain your answer.