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Rhenier S. Ilado RN

COMMUNITY - a social group determined by geographic boundaries and/or common values and interests.

Its members know and interact with each other. It functions within a particular social structure and exhibits and creates norms, values and social institutions

1. Urban high density, a socially heterogeneous population and a complex structure, non-agricultural occupations; characterized by complex interpersonal social relations 2. Rural usually small and the occupation of the people is usually farming, fishing and food gathering - it is peopled by simple folk characterized by primary group relations, well knit and having a high degree of group feeling 3. Rurban


1. Individual the PHN deals with individuals sick or well on a daily basis, these are the people who consult at the health center and receive health services such as prenatal supervision, well-child follow-ups and morbidity services 2. Family it is a very important social institution that performs two major functions reproduction and socialization. It is considered as the basic unit of care in community health nursing for many reasons

3. Population Group or aggregate is a group of people who share common characteristics, developmental factors and consequently common health problems. 4. Community is a group of people sharing common geographic boundaries and/or common values and interests

1. it is defined by its geographical boundaries within certain identifiable characteristics 2. it is made of institutions organized into a social system with the institutions and organizations linked in a complex network having a formal and informal power structure and a communication system 3. a common or shared interest that binds the members together exists

4. it has an area with fluid boundaries within which a problem can be identified and solved 5. it has a population aggregate concept


1. Prompts its members to have a high degree of awareness that We are community 2. Uses its natural resources while taking steps to conserve them for future generations

3. Openly recognizes the existence of sub groups and welcomes their participation in community affairs 4. Is prepared to meet crises

5. Is a problem solving community; it identifies, analyzes and organizes to meet its own needs 6. Has open channels of communication that allows information to flow among all subgroups of its citizens in all directions

7. Seeks to make each of its systems resources available to all members of the community

8. Has legitimate and effective ways to settle disputes and meet needs that arise within the community 9. Encourage maximum citizen participation in decision-making 10. Promotes a high level wellness among all its members

1. The Core represents the people that make up the community included in the community CORE are the demographics of the population as well as the values, beliefs and history of the people

2. Subsystems a. Housing includes the presence and adequacy of housing facilities available in the community - also includes laws/regulations governing the people b. Education include laws, regulations, facilities, activities affecting education, ratio of health educators to learners, distribution of educational facilities

c. Fire and Safety includes fire protection facilities and fire prevention activities, distribution of these d. Politics and Government political structures present in the community, decision-making process/pattern leadership style observed e. Health health facilities and activities, distribution, utilization, ratio of providers to clientele served, priorities in health,

f. Communication systems, types of communication existing, forms of communication, be it formal or informal g. Economics occupation, types of economic activities, income etc

h. Recreation recreational activities/facilities, types, consumers, appropriateness to consumers etc


1. Welfare Approach The immediate response to ameliorate the manifestation of poverty, especially on the personal level Assumes that poverty is god-given, destined, hence the poor should accept their condition since they will receive their just reward in heaven believes that poverty is caused by bad luck, natural disasters and certain circumstances which are beyond the control of people

2. Modernization Approach/Project Development Approach Also referred to as the project development approach introduces whatever resources are lacking in a given community Also considered a national strategy which adopts the western mode of technological development assumes that development consist of abandoning the traditional methods of doing things and must adopt the technology of industrial countries believes that poverty is due to lack of education, lack of resources such as capital and technology

3. Transformatory/Participatory Approach The process of empowering/ transforming the poor and the oppressed sectors of society so that they can pursue more just and humane society Assumes that poverty is not god-given, rather it is rooted in the historical past and is maintained by the oppressive structures in society believes that poverty is caused by prevalence of exploitation, oppression, domination and other unjust structures



a social development approach that aims to transfer apathetic, individualistic, and voiceless poor dynamic, participatory and politically responsive community a collective, participatory, transformative, liberative, sustained and systematic process of building people organizations by mobilizing and enhancing the capability and resources of the people for the resolution of their issues and concerns towards affecting change in the existing oppressive and exploitative conditions

a process by which a community identifies its needs and objectives, develops confidence to take action in respect in them and in doing so, extends and develops cooperative and collaborative attitudes and practices in the community a continuous and sustained process of educating the people to understand and develop their critical awareness of their existing conditions, working with people collectively and efficiently on their immediate and long-term problems, and mobilizing the people to develop their capability and readiness to respond and take action on their immediate needs toward solving their longterm problems

COPAR is an important tool for community development and people empowerment as this: 1. Helps the community workers to generate community participation in development activities. 2. COPAR prepares people/clients to eventually take over the management of developments programs in the future. 3. COPAR maximizes community participation and involvement; 4. Community resources are mobilized for community services.


People, especially the most oppressed, exploited and deprived sectors are open to change, have the capability to change, and are able to bring about change. COPAR should be based on the interests of the poorest sector of society. COPAR should lead to a self-reliant community and society.


A PROGRESSIVE CYCLE OF ACTION-REFLECTIONACTION which begins with small, local and concrete issues identified by the people and the evaluation and reflection of an on the action taken by them. CONSCIOUSNESS-RAISING though experiential learning central to the COPAR process because it places emphasis on learning that emerges from concrete action and which enriches succeeding action.

COPAR IS PARTICIPATORY AND MASS-BASED because it is primarily directed towards and biased in favor of the poor, the powerless and the oppressed. COPAR is GROUP-CENTERED AND NOT LEADERORIENTED. Leaders are identified, emerge and are tested though action rather than appointed or selected by some external force or entity.


1. Pre-entry phase is the initial phase of the organizing process where the community/organizer looks for communities to serve/help it is considered the simplest phase in terms of actual outputs, activities and strategies and time spent for it activities include:

designing a plan for community development, including all its activities and strategies for care/development designing criteria for the selection of site actually selecting the site for community care

1. Preparation of the Institution a. Train faculty and students in COPAR. Formulate plans for institutionalizing COPAR. Revise/enrich curriculum and immersion program.
2. Site Selection Initial networking with local government. Conduct preliminary special investigation. Make long/short list of potential communities.

3. Formulating Criteria for Initial Site Selection Must have a population of 100-200 families. Economically depressed. No strong resistance from the community. No serious peace and order problem. No similar group or organization holding the same program. 4. Identifying Potential Municipalities Make long/short list.

5. Identifying Potential Barangay Do the same process as in selecting municipality. Consult key informants and residents. Coordinate with local government and NGOs for future activities. 6. Choosing Final Barangay Conduct informal interviews with community residents and key informants. Determine the need of the program in the community. Pay courtesy call to community leaders. Choose foster families based on guidelines.

7. Identifying Host Family House is strategically located in the community. Should not belong to the rich segment. Respected by both formal and informal leaders. Neighbors are not hesitant to enter the house. No member of the host family should be moving out in the community


sometimes called the Social Preparation Phase as it the activities done here includes the sensitization of the people on the critical events in their life, motivating them to share their dreams and ideas on how to manage their concerns and eventually mobilizing them to take collective action on these. This phase signals the actual entry of the community worker/organizer into community. She must be guided by the following guidelines: a. Recognize the role of local authorities by paying them visits to inform them of their presence and activities. b. her appearance, speech, behavior and lifestyle should be in keeping with their with those of community residents without disregard of their being role models c. Avoid raising consciousness of the community residential adopt a low-key profile.


A. establishment of links with leaders and agencies; give formal recognition of the role of local authorities by paying them a visit to inform them of the activities to be done B. Immersion: Selecting/living in a host family to acquire a deeper understanding of the objective conditions of the community a. Integration with the Community - establishing rapport with the people in continuing effort to imbibe community life by living with them and undergoing the same experiences and sharing their hopes Example: seek out to converse with people where they usually congregate lend a hand in household chores avoid gambling and drinking conducting house to house visit participating in community activities

C. Information Dissemination of Selected program Discussions during house to house visits Small group discussions/focus group discussions Purok meetings and community assemblies D. Social Investigation/Community Study - verification and enrichment of data collected from initial survey conduct baseline survey/information by students, results relayed through community assembly

E. Identification of POTENTIAL LEADER becomes the future organizers and managers of community based programs. These people identifies will be the foundations of community organization

F. Provision of Basic health Services responding to immediate health related needs Problems of the community may already be identified


Entails the formation of more formal structures and the inclusion of more formal procedures of planning, implementing, and evaluating community-wide activities. It is at this phase where the organized leaders or groups are being given training (formal, informal, OJT) to develop their task in managing their own concerns/programs.


Occurs when the community organization has already been established and the community members are already actively participating in community-wide undertakings. At this point, the different committees set-up in the organization-building phase are already expected to be functioning by way of planning, implementing and evaluating their own programs, with the overall guidance from the community-wide organization. Strategies used may include:

Education and training Networking and linkaging conduction of mobilization on health and development concerns developing secondary leaders


1. Integration a community organizer becoming one with the people in order to:
immerse himself in the poor community understand deeply the culture, economy, leaders, history, rhythms and life style in the community

methods of integration includes:

participation in direct production activities of the people conduct of house to house visits Participation in activities like birthdays, fiestas etc. Conversing with people where they usually gather such as in stores, water wells, washing streams, or in church yards. Helping out in household chores like cooking, washing the dishes, etc.

2. Social Investigation a systematic process of collecting, collating, analyzing data to draw a clear picture of the community also known as the community study pointes for the conduct of social investigation:

use of survey questionnaires is discouraged Community leaders can be trained to initially assist the community worker /organizer in doing S.I. Data can be more effectively and efficiently collected though informal methods (house to house visits, participating in conversations in jeepneys and others. Secondary data should be thoroughly examined because much of the information might already be available S.I is facilitated if the CO/community worker is properly integrated and has acquired the trust of the people. Confirmation and validation of community data should be done regularly.

3. Tentative Program Planning CO to choose one issue to work on in order to begin organizing the people 4. Groundwork Going around and motivating the people on a one on one basis to do something on the issue that has been chosen. 5. The Meeting People collectively ratifying what they have already decided individually. The meeting gives the people the collective power and confidence, problems and issues are discussed.

6. Role Play Means to act out the meeting that will take place between the leaders of he people and the government representatives. It is a way of training the people to anticipate what will happen and prepare themselves or such eventuality.

7. Mobilization or Action Actual experience of he people in confronting the powerful and the actual exercise of people power.
8. Evaluation The people reviewing the steps 1-7 so as to determine whether they were successful or not in their objectives

9. Organization The peoples organization is the result of many successive and similar actions of the people. A final organizational structure is set up with elected offices and supporting members