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STEAM TURBINE & AUXILIARIES

What it is?

A mechanical device that extracts thermal energy from the steam and converts into Mechanical work

Classification

Impulse or Reaction Single stage or Multi stage Velocity or Pressure Compounded Axial or Radial flow Single or Multi Cylinder Nozzle or Bypass Governing Condensing, Back Pressure, Topping or Mixed Pressure

IMPULSE TURBINE

Uses impact force of the steam jet on the blades to turn the shaft Steam expands on passing through nozzles Pressure reduces and velocity increases Through moving blades pressure remains constant while velocity decreases No expansion in moving blades

Velocity Compounded Impulse Turbine

Pressure compounded

REACTION TURBINES

Rotor blades themselves are arranged to form convergent nozzles Makes use of the reaction force as steam accelerates through nozzles formed by the rotor

RANKINE CYCLE

IPSV1 IPCV 1 FROM RH

TURBINE LAYOUT

ESV1 CV1

CRH

GENERATOR 1 HPT 1X17 2 IPT 2X12 3 LPT 2X6 4 5 6

EXCI TER

TO LP HEATERS CONDEN LPBYPASS

TURBINE COMPONENTS

Casing Rotor Blades Sealing System Stop and Control Valves Couplings and Bearings Barring Gear / Turning Gear

TURBINE CASING

Holds fixed blade diaphragms Axially split in two parts (Upper and Lower casing) HP Single flow IP Single or Double flow LP Double flow Smaller Units (100 MW) only HP and LP turbines More smaller units (70 or below) single shell having HP and LP turbines

HP ROTOR

Machined from single Cr-Mo-V steel forging with integral discs Balancing holes machined in moving wheels to reduce axial thrust Blades are shrouded

IP ROTOR

Few discs integrally forged while others are shrunk fit Shaft of high creep resistant Cr-Mo-V steel forging Shrunk fit discs are machined from high strength nickel steel forgings Wheels are shrouded

LP ROTOR

Shrunk fit discs at Shafts Shaft forging of Cr-Mo-V steel Discs of high strength nickel steel forgings Blades secured to respective discs by riveted fork root fastening Lacing wires provided to dampen the vibrations and match frequency of blades Stellite strips provided at leading edges of last two stages to protect them against wet steam erosion

BLADES

Most costly items of turbine When fixed in stationary part guide blades / nozzles When fixed in moving part rotating / working blades Three main parts: Aerofoil: Working part Root Shrouds Shroud to prevent steam leakage and guide steam to next stage Effective sealing to be provided since pressure drop occurs across moving blades in reaction turbines Lacing wires to dampen vibrations in longer blades

Sealing

Sealing steam provided at the glands (1 1.5 ksc, 130o 150o C) To prevent escape of steam or ingress of air Constrictions by means of labyrinth sealing Air vapour mixture sucked out by means of steam ejector Used for control of expansion

Bearings

Journal Bearings 6 Nos. Thrust Bearing 1 No. Forced Lubricated Provision of Jacking oil in some

Front Bearing Pedstal


Located at Turbine end of the TG unit Supports turbine casing and bears rotor Houses following components:

Journal Bearing Hydraulic Turning Gear Main oil pump with hydraulic speed transducer Electric Speed transducer Over speed trip Shaft Vibration pick up Bearing vibration pick up

Barring Gear

To keep the rotor rotating prior to start up and after shut down Rotated by Double Row Blade wheel driven by oil provided by AOP / Electric motor coupled with gear Shaft speed 210 / 240 / 3.4 rpm

TURBINE SPEEDS (BTPS)


Normal Operation 3000 rpm Barring Gear 3.4 rpm Critical Speeds:

1585, 1881, 2017 & 2489 rpm 40 minutes under vacuum 20 minutes without vacuum

Coasting Down:

Valves

ESV (Emergency Stop Valve) 1 or 2 nos. actuated by servo motor / protection system immediate stoppage of steam supply IV (Interceptor Valve) 2 nos. Control Valves 2 to 8 nos. depending upon design to regulate steam flow to turbine

Couplings

Single shaft not feasible Rigid Coupling (due to high torque)


HP IP IP LP LP GENERATOR GENERATOR EXCITER HP - MOP

LUB. OIL SYSTEM

Purpose

To reduce wear and tear of rotating elements To maintain Bearing Temperature Sealant in Hydrogen Cooling system of Generator Working fluid in Governing system Barring gear operation

Components

Main Oil Pump (MOP) Starting Oil Pump Aux. Oil Pump (AOP) Emergency Oil Pump DC operated Jacking Oil Pump Main Oil Tank Oil Coolers Oil Injectors Oil Filters Centrifuge (to remove moisture & impurities) Vapour Extractors

CONDENSATE SYSTEM

What it is?

Steam after condensing in the condenser collected in Hot well Extracted out by CEP Taken to deaerator through ejectors, gland steam coolers and series of LP heaters

CEP
Converts last stage steam of LPT to water CEP
CONDENSER

GSC

CPU

DEAREATO R LEVEL CONTROL

CONDENSER

Minimum recirculation to condenser

Condensate Flow

LPH1 FROM CONDENSER

LPH2

LPH3 TO DEAREATOR

DRIPWATER CONDENSER

DRIPWATER CONDENSER

DRIPWATER CONDENSER

CONDENSER

LOW PRESSURE HEATERS

D/A LPT 3RD STAGE LPT 5RD STAGE LPT 7RD STAGE

BFP

LPH3 DRIP

LPH2 DRIP

LPH1 DRIP

DC

CONDENSER

Feed Water Heater

A Feedwater heater is a component used to pre-heat water delivered to the boiler. Preheating the feedwater reduces the amount of energy needed to make steam and thus reduces plant operation costs. This improves the thermodynamic efficiency of the system.

Deaerator

The presence of certain gases, principally oxygen, carbon-di-oxide and ammonia, dissolved in water is generally considered harmful because of their corrosive attack on metals, particularly at elevated temperatures. function is to remove dissolved gases from the feed water by mechanical means.

FEED WATER SYSTEM

Components of feed water system

Feed Water System The main equipments coming under this system are: Boiler Feed Pump : Three per unit of 50% capacity each located in the '0' meter level in the TG bay. High Pressure Heaters: Normally three in number and are situated in the TG bay Drip Pumps : Generally two in number of 100% capacity each situated beneath the LP heaters.

General Arrangement of BFP


Feed Water From D/A Suction Strainer To HPH. Recirculation to FST

Motor Booster Pump S S for Main Pump

Main Pump

Hydraulic Coupling

BOILER FEED PUMP


NDE BEARING DE BEARING

SLEEVE KEY SOLE PLATE (BASE PLATE) FOUNDATION BOLT

18

Feed Regulating Station

Lo

From HPH

Hi

Hi

VACUUM SYSTEM

By condensing the exhaust steam of turbine, the exhaust pressure is brought down below atmospheric pressure, increasing the steam pressure drop between inlet and exhaust of steam turbine. This further reduction in exhaust pressure gives out more heat per unit weight of steam input to the steam turbine, for conversion to mechanical power.

Parts of Vacuum System


Condenser CW system Ejectors/Vacuum pumps Gland Sealing System

STEAM EJECTORS
Nozzle Discharge to condenser Convergent divergent diffuser

Motive steam

Non condensibile gases and water vapour from condenser

AUX. STEAM SYSTEM

SOURCES

Auxiliary boiler. Station PRDS header (from other running units) Under unit running condition Steam for turbine auxiliary steam header is normally taken from extraction lines depending on load on the turbine sources may be:

Main steam line through pr and temp reducing valves CRH line

Uses of Auxiliary Steam on Turbine side


To turbine gland seal header. To ejector system of condenser (main as well as starting ejector).
to Deaerator as pegging steam

For flange & stud heating. Interconnection to station PRDS header for supplying aux steam to other units.

Uses of Auxiliary Steam on Boiler side


Burner atomisation,cleaning, scavenging SCAPH charging during cold start up Regenerative air heater sooth blowing. Off Sites: HFO station: Fuel oil system heating fuel, oil storage tanks, pipelines, fuel oil heaters.

AUX STEAM HEADER

29/14

Flange and Stud heating

Used for quick starting of turbine from warm or cold start. Helps in reducing the temperature difference of the metal to reduce thermal stress. The device consists of jackets welded to side walls of casing flanges and special piping complete with fittings and measuring instruments for steam inlet, outlet, and drains. The flanges and studs are heated with live steam bled from pipelines before main stop valve (ESV).

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