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Finnbarr P. Murphy SCSA RHCSA RHCE (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Logical Volume Manager
• Why consider Logical Volume Manager?
– Decrease the number of file systems – Avoid data loss due to disk failure – Balance I/O across disks, performance – Avoid file systems check at boot – Grow file systems online
Solaris Volume Manager
• Solaris Volume Manager (SVM) is a disk and storage management solution suitable for enterprise-class deployment. • It can be used to:
– Pool storage elements into volumes and allocate them to applications. – Provide redundancy and failover capabilities which can help provide continuous data access in the event of a device failure.
Solaris Volume Manager
• SVM is a free component of Solaris 9 and Solaris 10
– It was previously known as Solstice DiskSuite – Provides mechanisms to configure physical slices of hard drives into logical volumes – Logical volumes can then be configured to provide mirroring and RAID5 – Similar to Veritas Volume Manager – Not used with ZFS!
Why SVM? • Without SVM – Each disk slice has its own physical and logical device – File system cannot span more than one disk slice – The maximum size of a file system is limited to the size of the disk even with large file summit support. • With SVM – disk slices can be grouped across several disks to appear as one or more volumes (metadevices) to the operating system • /dev/md/dsk/d0 • /dev/md/rdsk/d0 .
Garth Gibson and Randy Katz .RAID • Acronym for – Redundant Array of Independent Disks • formerly Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks – Combine multiple disk drive components into a logical unit. where data is distributed across the drives in one of several ways called RAID levels – Concept introduced at the University of California at Berkeley in 1987 by David Patterson.
Striping with distributed parity .Mirroring .Hamming code correction .Mirroring with Striping .RAID 5 with second parity calculation .Independent reads and writes .Striping or Concatenation .RAID • • • • • • • • • RAID 0 RAID 1 RAID 0+1 RAID 1+0 RAID 2 RAID 3 RAID 4 RAID 5 RAID 6 .Striping with dedicated party disk .Striping with Mirroring .
4 and 6 not available in SVM – These RAID levels are not commonly implemented in commercial applications. • Raid 0+1 and RAID 1+0 are not RAID levels. – Are abstractions composed of more than one RAID levels.RAID • RAID levels 2. 3. .
• Two main types of RAID – Hardware RAID – Software RAID • SVM is software RAID .Advantages of RAID • The foremost advantage of using a RAID drive is that it increases the performance and/or reliability of a system.
Concatenation (RAID 0) FS 1 FS 2 RAID Management Software Virtual FS FS 3 .
Concatenation (RAID 0) Partition 10 mb SVM Volume ~20mb Partition 10 mb .
.Concatenation (RAID 0) • Combines multiple stripes to create a large volume – No redundancy – Can contain slices of different sizes because they are merely joined together.
Striping (RAID 0) FS 1 FS 2 RAID Management Software FS 1 FS 2 FS 3 FS 3 .
Striping (RAID 0) Interlace1 interlace3 10 mb SVM Volume ~20mb Interlace2 interlace4 10 mb .
Striping (RAID 0) • Used to increase read and write performance – by spreading data requests over multiple disks and controllers • Stripes must all be same size. .
Mirror (RAID 1) Data FS 1 FS 2 FS 3 FS 4 FS 1 RAID Management Software FS 1 FS 2 FS 3 FS 4 FS 2 FS 3 FS 4 Mirror .
Mirror (RAID 1) Data1 Data2 10 mb SVM Volume ~10mb Data1 Data2 10 mb .
• Requires twice the disks for the same capacity – Most expensive option .Mirror (RAID 1) • Used to guard against disk failure – Redundancy • Any file system can be mirrored – Including root. swap and usr.
Striping with Distributed Parity (RAID 5) FS 1 FS 4 FS 7 P(10-12) FS 2 FS 5 P(7-9) FS 10 FS 3 P(4-6) FS 8 FS 11 P(1-3) FS 6 FS 9 FS 12 FS 1 FS 2 FS 3 FS 4 RAID Management Software FS 5 FS 6 FS 7 FS 8 FS 9 FS 10 FS 11 FS 12 .
3 10 Mb Interlace2 Interlace 5 Parity 1.2 10 Mb .Striping with Distributed Parity (RAID 5) Interlace1 Interlace4 Parity 2.3 10 Mb RAID 5 D2 20% mb Interlace 3 Interlace 6 Parity 1.
Striping with Distributed Parity (RAID 5) • Minimum of three slices – Must be same size • The pattern of writing data and parity results in both data and parity spread across all the disks in the volume • Parity protect against a single disk failure. .
RAID 0+1 .
RAID 0+1 FS 1 FS 2 FS 3 FS 4 FS 5 FS 6 FS 7 FS 8 RAID Management Software Striping FS 1 FS 2 FS 3 FS 4 FS 5 FS 1 FS 6 FS 2 FS 7 FS 8 RAID Management Software Mirroring FS 3 FS 4 FS 5 FS 1 FS 2 FS 3 FS 4 FS 5 FS 6 FS 7 FS 8 RAID Management Software Striping FS 1 FS 2 FS 3 FS 4 FS 5 FS 6 FS 7 FS 8 FS 6 FS 7 FS 8 .
RAID 1+0 .
RAID Comparison FEATURE Redundant data Improve read performance Improve write performance RAID 0 RAID 0 CONCATENATION STRIPE RAID 1 RAID 5 No No Yes Depends on underlying device Yes No Yes Yes No Yes No No .
RAID Comparison FEATURE RAID 1 RAID 5 NON-Redundant Writes operations Faster Slower Neutral Random read Slower Faster Neutral Hardware cost Highest Higher Lowest Redundancy Best OK Data loss .
configuration. ownership and other information in special areas of a disk (slices/partitions) – Minimum of 3 required – One is designated as the master • System will not boot into multiuser unless a majority (half + 1. 51%) of the state replicas are available • System will panic if more than half of the state replicas are corrupt .State Replicas • Are repositories of information on the state and configuration of each metadevice – Also known as Database State Replica or State Databases – Store disk state.
State Replicas • Replicas Store: – Disk configuration information – State Information • Planning for Replicas: – One Disk: 3 replicas on one slice – Two-Four Disks: 2 replicas on each – Five or more Disks: 1 on each .
Create State Replicas Create 3 state replicas using the metadb command: # metadb -a -f c0t0d0s3 # metadb -a c0t0d0s5 # metadb -a c0t0d0s6 * The -a and -f options used together to create the initial state replica • The -a option attaches a new database device and automatically edits the appropriate files • You can create more than one state replica in a slice! .
Create State Replicas Create 2 state replicas using the metadb command: # metadb –a –f –c2 c0t0d0s4 c0t0d1s4 * The -a and -f options are used together to create the initial replica * The -a option attaches a new database device and automatically edits the appropriate files * The -c2 option specifies that 2 replicas are to be created .
Delete State Replicas Delete replica(s): # metadb –d c0t0d1s4 • The -d option is used to delete all replicas in the specified slice Delete all replicas: # metaclear .
State Replica Status Display replica status: # metadb # metadb –i • The -i option displays description of flags • The last field of each replica listing is the path to the location of the replica • A “m” flag indicates master replica • A “u” flag indicates replica is up –to-date & active .
boot to single user and – Delete any corrupted replicas – Create sufficient new replicas to achieve quorum • Check replica status frequently! .State Replica Problems • SVM does not detect problems with replicas until existing configuration changes and an update to replicas is required • If insufficient replicas are available.
SVM Volumes • A (logical) volume (metadevice) is a group of physical slices that appear to the operating system as a single device • A volume is used to increase storage capacity and increase data availability • SVM can support up to 8192 volumes – Volume names start with d followed by a number – default configuration is 128 volumes • d0 to d127 .
SVM Volumes • You can create the following types of volumes – – – – – Concatenations Stripes Concatenated scripes Mirrors RAID5 • Transactional volumes are no longer supported as of Solaris 10 – Use UFS logging to achieve same functionality • Creating a volume does not create a filesystem! – Unlike ZFS. you need to manually create the fileystem • newfs .
RAID 0 Volumes Create a concatenated volume: # metainit –f d10 1 1 ctt0d0s3 Create a striped volume: # metainit –f d10 1 3 c2t1d0s6 c2t2d0s6 c2d3d0s6 Monitor state of a volume: # metastat d10 # metastat -c d10 * The –c option means output in concise format .
Soft Partitions A soft partition is a means of dividing a disk or volume into as many partitions (extents) as needed – Overcomes the eight slice limit – Can be noncontiguous (hard must be contiguous) • This can cause I/O performance degradation # metainit d10 –p c2t1d0s6 * The –p option specifies that the metadevice created will be a soft partition .
Why? – Slices should be the same size.Mirrors • Mirror: – Should be on different disks. Why? • Types of Mirrors: – One Way – Two Way – Three Way .
metainit d12 1 1 c0t0d1s6 Then create the mirror volume using one of the submirrors: # metainit d1 –m d11 Then attach the second submirror: # metainit d1 d12 * The –m option specifies that the volume created will be a mirror .Mirrors A mirror is a volume that consists of 2 or more submirrors First create the submirrors: # metainit d11 1 1 c0t0d0s6.
Mirrors To offline the d11 submirror of the d1 mirrored volume: # metaoffline d1 d11 To online the d11 submirror of the d1 mirrored volume: # metaonline d1 d11 To attach another submirror (d13) to the d1 mirrored volume: # metattach d1 d13 To detach submirror d13 from the d1 mirrored volume: # metadetach d1 d13 .
Create 2-Way Mirror • Create a two-way mirror for /home: # metainit -f d51 1 1 c0t0d0s2 (/home) # metainit d52 1 1 c1t0d0s2 (unmounted) # metainit d50 -m d51 # umount /home (what if you can’t umount?) # vi /etc/vfstab (add /dev/md/dsk/d50) # newfs /dev/md/dsk/d50 # mount /home (on d50) # metattach d50 d52 .
Delete Mirror • Detach a mirror metadevice # metadetach d50 d5 • Delete the metadevices # metaclear -a 42 .
Unmirror To unmirror a non-critical filesystem (/test) which is based on a mirror d1 (d11 and d12 submirrors) # umount /test # metadetach d1 d12 # metaclear –r d1 # metaclear d12 Then edit /etc/vsftab to replace the /test entry with a regular device instead a metadevice # mount /test .
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