Avoid using someone's given name unless you have known him or her for a long period of time. catalogues and brochures. it is common today for cold calls and direct contacts.    . However. Chinese business contacts are mostly referrals. generally during your first meeting. given the availability of the internet and the competitive nature of Chinese businesses. Address a person using his or her family name only. advertisements and approach the Chinese companies directly through a call or email. After an initial handshake. essentially a business relationship is struck based on another business associate recommendation. trade fairs. such as Mr. Chen. You may source from the internet. and it is advisable to clarify how you will address someone very early in a relationship. Formality is a sign of respect. Business interactions between men and women are reserved. avoid body contact such as hugging or kissing on the cheek.

 . the other party is also making up his mind about your deal based on how much he sees your personal relationship with him. aloof. the closer you are in your business relationship. hobbies. including family. a lot of time is spent discussing matters outside of business. aspirations. political views. The more you share your personal life. Unlike Western business relationship which remains professional and perhaps. even after a long time. Chinese business relationship inevitably becomes a social relationship after a while. Chinese business relationship becomes a social one. but then a lot of time. Sometimes.

 The greatest difference in organizational structure between most Chinese enterprise and Western companies is that there are parallel management systems in a Chinese enterprise. administrative system 2. 1.leadership structure based around CCP(Chinese Communist Party) So this system is always referred as “ Two Carriages” .

differences of opinion often arise between the two management systems. Main responsibility of the latter system (leadership structure based around CCP) is personnel assignment. • Because of the difficulties associated with operating the parallel system. .

.The function of a SOE: “a large family”. childcare. including medical insurance. It plays an extensive role in both the professional and private lives of their employees. schooling and entertainment. Most enterprises in China not only provide their employee with working opportunities and salaries. but must also offer a full array of material necessities. housing.

Therefore a SOE manager’s work is very complex. So the Organizational Functions of Chinese enterprise are like those of a small society. The function of a SOE: “a large family”. .

managers must take care of employees. . As the enterprise is regarded as a “large family”. the general manager is naturally assumed as a “parent”. b) The function of a manager must be like a parent. In return. managers are respected as the head of family by the employees. Actually.

The Worker’s Congresses are usually permitted to participate in decisions related to working conditions. not strategic policy. . b) The role of middle managers in the decision‐ making process Chinese middle managers usually carry out the manager’s instructions obediently.a) Formal participation systems.

c) Collecting information and making final Decisions Because managers do not fully trust their employees. Chinese managers believe that the responsibility for implementation of decisions should not be taken individually . they prefer collecting information themselves rather than from colleagues or subordinates. d) Responsibility for the implementation of decisions.

group of employees enjoying lunch together) .g.. A specific type of group where an emphasis is put on some level of member interdependence and on achievement of common goals • • • All teams are groups Some groups are just people assembled together Teams have task interdependence whereas some groups do not (e.

bi-lingual version „ Use both hands when presenting business cards and ensure that the writing on the card is facing the recipient „ Cards should be received with both hands and placed on the table in front of you . if possible get a translated. spend a few seconds reading immediately put the card in your pocket or bag is considered rude „When you receive someone’s card. It is important to carry plenty of business cards. This not only helps you to remember name but also show a sign of respect for the other person „Do NOT write on someone else’s business card     .

 . However. jeans are not acceptable for business meetings.  Men and women can wear jeans. neutral colors should be worn by both men and women.  Subtle.  Casual dress should be conservative as well.Conservative suits for men with subtle colors are the norm.  Women should avoid high heels and short sleeved blouses. The Chinese frown on women who display too much.


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