Water and Solution


Light and sight Properties of light

Sound and hearing

Water supply system Phototropism Geotropism

Touch (skin) Smell (nose)

Properties of sound Vision defects Reflection and absorption Limitations Stereophonic

Hydrotropism Thigmotropism Nastic movement

Taste (tongue)
Hearing (ear)

Optical illusions
Stereoscopic and monocular

Sight (eye)

A sensory organ: an organ that enables the body to respond to stimuli.  A stimulus: a change in the surroundings that can be detected by the sensory organs.  The five sensory organs are: eye, ear, nose, tongue and skin.  The ability of the sensory organs to detect stimuli is called senses.  We have five senses: sight, hearing, touch, smell and taste


. Receptors in sensory organs Sensory nerves Stimulus Brain Motor nerves Response Effectors • A stimulus will stimulate the receptors in our sensory organs to produce electrical messages called nerve impulses. The following shows the pathway from stimulus to response. •After the brain interprets the messages received. the brain send ot nerve impulses to the effectors.

pressure receptors.  These receptors include: pain receptors.  . cold receptors and heat receptors. touch receptors.  There are five types of receptor in the skin.2 SENSE OF TOUCH The skin is a sensory organ which responds to the sense of touch.1.

•Pain receptors: sensitive to pain. •Touch receptors: sensitive to small pressure. •Heat receptors: sensitive to heat and detect a rise in temperature. •Pressure receptors: sensitive to large pressure.•Each receptors is sensitive to a specific stimulus. They are very close to the skin surface. They detect any contact made with the skin. •Cold receptors: sensitive to cold substances and detect a fall in temperature. They are deep within the skin. .

Receptor Cold receptor Heat receptor Pain receptor Position of receptor In the dermis In the dermis In the epidermis Pressure receptor Touch receptor In the fatty layer In the dermis .•The table below shows the position of receptors in the skin.

the blind touch small raised marks that they fell with their fingertips to read the Braille. Some parts of the body have more receptors and are of more sensitive.  The sensitivity of the skin depends on  The receptors are not evenly distributed throughout the body.  .  Other parts of the body like elbow and knee.  Our fingertips and neck are more sensitive.When a receptor is stimulated. the impulses are sent by the nervous system to the brain for interpretation. Hence. are not so sensitive to touch.

 Movement of air (winds) speeds up/slows down the evaporation by removing the evaporated water molecules from the surface of water. . the rate of evaporation is……  A high temperature gives more energy to the water molecules to escape into the air. Surrounding temperature .

the rate of evaporation is……  When the surface area of water is . hence increases the rate of evaporation. . the rate of evaporation is……   A big surface area allows more water molecules to escape from the surface of water into the air.When the air humidity is .

Differences between evaporation and boiling Evaporation Occurs at all temperatures below boiling point Boiling Occurs at boiling point only A slow process Occurs at the exposed surface of liquid No bubbles formed Does not required heat supply A fast process Occurs throughout the liquid Bubbles formed Requires heat supply .

Applications of evaporation of water in daily life •Drying clothes •Preserving vegetables and fruits •Processing of food such as dry prawns and salted fish •Producing common salts from the evaporation of sea water .

Sugar (solute) Water (solvent) (solution) Sugar (Solute)  Water (Solvent)  Mixture of sugar in water (solution) .

. solution is the mixture of solute and solvent.A solute is the substance which dissolves in a liquid. A solvent is a liquid which dissolves a substance.

Dilute solution A solvent which contains a little solute.Concentrated solution A solvent which contains a lot of solute. .

.Saturated solution A concentrated solution which cannot dissolve any more solute.

Instead.•If we mix flour with water. •Therefore. the flour does not dissolve in water. . a suspension contains dissolved substances with small solid particles suspended in liquid. it forms a suspension in water.

•The factors which affect the rate of dissolving are: •(a) Temperature of solvents •(b) Rate of stirring the solvents •(c) Size of solute particles •(d) Volume of solvents . Hence. •The factors which affect the solubility of solutes are: •(a) Nature of solvents •(b) Nature of solutes •(c) Temperature •Water can dissolved many different solutes.•Solubility of a solute is the number of grams of the solute which can dissolve in 100 ml of solvent at a specific temperature. water is known as the universal solvent.

•Some solutes cannot dissolve in water but they can dissolve in organic solvents. •Organic solvents are used to removed stains which cannot be removed by water. .

rubber.•The table below shows some organic solvents and their respective solutes. paint. paint. tar Grease. iodine. rust Plastic Grease. paint. lipstick. Organic solvents Solutes Alcohol Amyl acetate Acetone Benzene Chloroform Ether Kerosene Petrol Turpentine Chlorophyll. iodine. fats. cellulose Nail varnish. lipstick. tar Grease. shellac. oil Grease. tar . paint. ink Nail varnish. ink Grease.

pH value: From 0 to less than 7. Reaction with ammonium compounds: Give off ammonia gas . Reaction with carbonates: No reaction. pH value: From above 7 to 14.ACIDS Taste: Sour. Tested with litmus paper: Turn blue litmus red. Reaction with metals: No reaction. water and carbon dioxide. Reaction with carbonates: Form a salt. Reaction with ammonium compounds: No reaction. NEUTRAL ALKALIS Taste: Bitter. Tested with litmus paper: Turn red litmus blue. Corrosive: Concentrated acids are corrosive Touch: Like water. Reaction with metals: Form hydrogen and a salt. Corrosive: Concentrated alkali are corrosive Touch: Soapy.

lime water. ammonia . Tea. Sour milk Alkaline substances Toothpaste. milk of magnesia. Grape. Vinegar.•The table below shows some substances which are acidic and alkaline in everyday life Acidic substances Orange.

Uses of acids •Dilute sulphuric acid is used as electrolyte in the car battery. •Formic acid is used in coagulating latex. . •Vinegar is used in cooking.

•Sodium hydroxide is used for making soap. (white cloudy=calcium carbonate) •Ammonia is used to prevent the coagulation of latex.Uses of alkalis •Lime water is used to test for the presence of carbon dioxide. .

NEUTRALISATION a chemical reaction (also called a water forming reaction since a water molecule is formed during the process) in which an acid and a base or alkali (soluble base) react to produce salt and water (H2O). Acid  Alkali  Salt  Water .

Examples: •Hydrochloric acid  Sodium Hydroxide  Sodium Chloride  Water •Sulphuric acid  Potassium Hydroxide  Potassium sulphate  Water .

Uses of NEUTRALISATION Tooth paste is alkaline. . Milk of magnesia (antacid) can be used to neutralize the acid. It neutralizes the acids produced by bacteria in the mouth. Stomach ache is caused by too much acid.

These impurities must be removed before the water is safe for drinking.WATER PURIFICATION The natural resources of water are Rain River Sea Well Pond Spring The water from these sources contains impurities. The various types of water purification are  filtration Boiling Chlorination Distillation .


Filtration removed suspended impurities from the water. . Alum is added to coagulate suspended particles. •Water flows into coagulation tank.WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM •The water from the sources are collected in the dam. However. •The water is then filtered. Slaked lime is added to decrease the acidity of the water. it cannot remove dissolve impurities and microorganisms in the water.

•Fluoride is added to water to prevent tooth decay. .WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM •Chlorine is added to water to kill the microorganisms. •Water that has been treated enters the storage tank.

Siltation caused by construction and deforestation Accidental spillage from tankers. . Preservation of Water Quality. Water pollution will kill aquatic animals and plants. Chemicals from agricultural activities such as fertilisers and pesticides. Domestic waste such as garbage and sewage. Some examples of water pollutants include:        Industrial wastes such as chemical and radioactive residues.

Controls usage of pesticides and chemical fertilisers by farmers. Control logging. Encourage people to recycle. . construction and mining activities. Preservation of Water Quality. Enforce laws to prevent disposal of industrial waste and sewage to rivers and seas. Various ways should be carried out to control water pollution:       Do not dispose of rubbish into rivers.

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