A research population is generally a large collection of individuals or objects that is the main focus of a scientific query. Sample is a group of people, things, or places where data are collected. Sample is a part which represents a population (A sample is simply a subset of the population.)

Sample
The number
The methods
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The minimum number of sample:
Population • < 100 • 101-500 • 501-1000 • 50% • 30-50% • 20-30% Sample
• >1000
• 15-20%
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Simple Random Sampling
Systematic random Sampling
Stratified Random sampling
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then roll them
• Put the rolled papers into a box and shake the box.
• Take the rolled papers one by one until you get the number of needed sample
.A. Raffling
1 2 3 4
• List all names of population • Write all names in small pieces of papers. so the rolled papers will be mixed.

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• Check whether the number you choose is available in the list of population.1 2 3 4 5
• List all names of population • Prepare the table of random numbers • Close your eyes and tick one number using pencil. • Move your pencil up/down/left/right until you get the number of needed sample
.

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It is used when the population is arranged systematically 1 2
• List all names of population • Determine the interval by dividing the population with the sample needed
3
4
• Close your eyes and choose one number as your first sample
• Determine the next samples based on the interval which has been counted before.
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Population of the stratification in senior high school: grade X. and XII *grade X.g. Disproportional Stratified Sampling
. XI.It is used when there are stratification in the population e. Proportional Stratified Sampling B. and XII are called “Subpopulation”
There are two types of stratified random sampling A. XI.

Proportional Stratified Sampling •In determining the sample. Disproportional Stratified Sampling •In determining the sample. we not concern about the difference of the number of subpopulations’ member
. we should concern the ratio of each stratum B.A.

there are 222 students of grade X.333 students of grade IX.In a senior high school. so the total number of students is 999. and 444 students of grade IIX. Sample: 30% x 999 = 298
.

a. Disproportional : 298/ 3 class = 99 students of each grade
. Proportional : Grade X : 30% x 222 = 67 students Grade IX : 30% x 333 = 100 students Grade IIX : 30% x 444 = 133 students
b.

Select the sample The benefit of random sampling: It limits the probability that you choose a biased sample.
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Random Sampling .Define the population .

Defining the population
.It refers to the establishment of boundary conditions that specify who shall be included in or excluded from the population
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Stratification represents a good operational
strategy for screening members of the population
into and out of the study and for reducing the variability of the sample.
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Establishing specification for stratified random sampling
The use of stratified random sampling will permit you to include parameters of special interest and to control for internal validity in terms of selection
factors trough the use of moderator or control
variable.

rural
25% 75%
Private Public
public.A
Two-year colleges in the U.S.two-year colleges in the U.S. rural 15% 60% 15% private.A
two. urban
. urban Public.year colleges in the U.S.A
Two-year colleges in the U.S.A
10% private.

A
1% 12% 9% 5% 10% 3% 48% 12%
private.S.two-year colleges in the U. rural. small public. small
private. large public. rural. rural. urban. urban. rural. small
. small public. urban. large public. large private. urban. large
private.

E. a potential source of error or extraneous influence that may provide an
alternative explanation for the outcome of study. that is. you have more than one subpopulation. so in the sample taken should be 65% male. Each stratification parameter represent a control variable. Each subpopulation or stratum have random basis.
. If in the population 65% are male.g.REMEMBER:
In stratified random sampling. however all should be represented in the sample.

while keeping it large enough to ensure its
representativeness.
Determining sample size
How large a sample should I employ??
Use as small a sample as possible for reason of time and
cost.
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58
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z is usually set between 90 – 99:
90 = 90% chance or representativeness (0.65 95 99
= 95% chance or representativeness (0.Representativeness of the sample can be established at an acceptable level of probability/ confidence level (z).96 = 99% chance or representativeness (0.01 level) z = 2.5 level) z = 1.10 level) z = 1.

g.
e.It is desirable to minimize sampling error in order to maximize sample representativeness. a researcher should
maintain the same proportion in stratified sampling.
. So that. 50% male and 50% female in the population should be
represented by 50% male and 50% female in the sample.

Formula:
N = (z/e)2 (p) (1 – p)
N = sample size z = confidence level e = proportion of sampling error in a given situation p = the estimated proportion
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25) (0.E. when you
want 95% of confident level (z=1.25) (1 – 0.75) N = (384.16) (0.6) 2 (0. g.25) N = (19.1875) N = 72.96) with a tolerable amount
of error no greater than plus minus 10%.10) 2 (0.96/0.
How to count the sample size of Private two-year colleges account for 25 percent of all two-year colleges.
Answer:
N = (z/e)2 (p) (1 – p) N = (1.03 => 72
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Thank You…
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