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Thyristors

MSF 1433

Semiconductor Devices (Dr. Mohamad Alam Saeed)

Prepared by Azwin Hamdan (MS111039)


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Content

What is thyristor? idea

General

Characteristics How

it works?

Advantages Applications

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What is Thyristors?
SCR Diac

*Family of semiconductor devices *SCR, IGCT,MCT etc

Triac Thyristor s

GTO MCT

IGCT

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The oldest member of this family is Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR). it widely used, the word thyristor has become synonymous with it. SCR

Because

Thyristors

Definition

: A controlled electronic switch (can only be turned on/off electronically) of 4 layers of differently doped

Consists 5/25/12

Thyristor Family
Device Name Description Feature SCR Rectifier One way with control switch gate Function Phase control switching

Triac

Two inverse Two way AC Phase parallel switch control SCRs switching Two way triggering device Triac and Low voltage Switching VBO trigger Phase

Diac

Quadrac 5/25/12

General Idea

Consider this circuit and observe the switch. Thyristor is just like a switch before the gate signal is applied.
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When a triggering signal is applied, the switch turns ON and current starts to flow.

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Characteristics
Symbol
Has

anode and cathode terminals like diode there is an additional terminal triggering signal are applied

But,

= gate (control terminal and here

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I-V Characteristics

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I-V Characteristics
SCR

conducts in first quadrant

When

gate signal is applied, SCR made sufficiently forward biased to cross holding current limit, it starts to conduct. in conduction state, it continues to conduct even the gate is removed. technique ~ commutation

Once

Special
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methods

Anode current interruption method (turn OFF the switch) Forced commutation method(reverse polarity battery is connected, so current through SCR is decreased and turn off)

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I-V Characteristics

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How It Works?
J 1 J 2 J 3

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has 4 layers of pn junction device Without any application voltage, it has 3 diffusion region (J1, J2,J3)

How It Works?

If we apply +ve at anode with respect to cathode, J1 and J3 become forward biased while J2 in reverse biased. This will remain until a +ve signal is applied at the gate terminal.

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How It Works?
So,

when +ve signal is applied at the gate, J2 will turns to forward biased state and current starts to flow.

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Thyristor as Two Transistor Model

Revealed that it actually made up of PNP and NPN transistor. Collector is connected to the base of 2nd. is connected to the base of NPN transistor.

Gate 5/25/12

Thyristor as Two Transistor Model

On application of signal, the NPN transistor conducts sending a signal to the base of PNP transistor + which in turn conducts and send another 5/25/12 signal to base

Why Thyristor/ SCR?


Simple to use Cheap to buy Easy to build (thyristor circuits) Able to handle the voltage and current required for high power applications Has good thermal properties

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Applications
Series

Static Switch Charging Regulator Controller Lighting System

Battery

Temperature Emergency

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Series Static Switch

If the switch is closed as shown in the Fig. 20.11b, a gate current will flow during the positive portion of the input signal, turning the SCR on. A half-wave series static switch is shown in Fig. 20.11a.

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Series Static Switch

Resistor R1 limits the magnitude of the gate current. the SCR turns on, the anode-to cathode voltage (VF) will drop to the gate circuitry.

When For

the negative region of the input signal, the SCR will turn off since the anode is 5/25/12 negative with respect to the cathode.

Battery Charging Regulator

D1 and D2 establish a full-wave-rectifier

signal across SCR1 and the 12-V battery to be charged.


At low battery voltages, SCR2 is in the off state.

With SCR2 open, the SCR1 controlling circuit 5/25/12 is exactly the same as the series static switch

Battery Charging Regulator

When the full-wave-rectifier input is sufficiently large to produce the required turn-on gate current (controlled by R1), SCR1 will turn on and charging of the battery will commence. At the start of charging, the low battery

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Battery Charging Regulator

Voltage VR is turn too small to cause 11.0-V Zener conduction.

In the off state, the Zener is effectively an open circuit, maintaining SCR2 in the off state since the gate current is zero. 5/25/12

Battery Charging Regulator

As charging continues, the battery voltage rises to a point where VR is sufficiently high to both turn on the 11.0V Zener and fire SCR2.

Once, SCR2 has fired, the short-circuit 5/25/12 representation for SCR2 will result in a

Battery Charging Regulator

When this occurs, the battery is fully charged and the open circuit state of SCR1 will cut off the charging current. Thus, the regulator recharges the battery whenever the voltage drops and prevents overcharging when fully charged.

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Temperature Controller

SCR serves as a current amplifier in a loadswitching element. It is not an amplifier in the sense that it magnifies the current level of the thermostat. Rather it is advice whose higher current level is controlled by the behavior of the thermostats.

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Charging will only take place when the anode of D1 is more positive than its cathode. The dc level of the full-wave-rectified signal will ensure that the bulb is lit when the power is on.

Emergency Lighting System

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Emergency Lighting System

If the power should fail, the capacitor C1, will discharge through D1, R1 and R3, until the cathode of SCR1 is less positive than the anode. At the same time the junction of R2 and R3 will become positive and establish sufficient gate-to-cathode voltage to trigger the SCR.

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END

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References

http://www.electronicsradio.com/articles/electronic_compo nents/scr/what-is-a-thyristor.php principle-of-operation

http://www.circuitstoday.com/scrMuhammad

Usman Yusufs Slide (youtube Thyristor)

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