Geology is the study of the Earth, the materials of which it is made, the structure of
The wearing away, detachment and transportation of soil from one place to another place and its deposition by moving water, blowing wind or other causes is called soil erosion.
those materials, and the processes acting upon them. It includes the study of organisms that have inhabited our planet. An important part of geology is the study of how Earth’s materials, structures, processes and organisms have changed over time.
WHY DOES EROSION OCCUR?
GEOLOGY OF THE THANE REGION
•The Gorad village comes under the vada taluka of thane district. As per the government investigation ,the thane gazettier consists of the following information for the thane district. •Basalt flows form the predominant formation capped at a few places by laterite at higher levels •The hill ranges in the area are predominantly aligned northsouth, and have more or less steep escarpments .The drainage is controlled by the Vaitarna, Surya and Ulhas rivers and their tributaries •There are about thirty-three hot springs which are described under five groups based on their location. These are : Vajreshwari, Sativli, Haloli, Paduspada and Koknere. • Basalt flows, popularly known as Deccan traps, form the predominant formation.It is capped by laterite on a few high plateaus and covered by shore sands along the coast. •The flow belongs to the Pahoehoe type. At places, it shows ropy structure and flow wrinkle. The flows vary from fine, to medium grained, grey to black basalts. An active basalt lava flow
• It very much depends on the power balance between the rainfall (or the runoff) and the soil. Rain and its runoff provides the force to drive water erosion. • If the force applied to the soil is greater than the resistance of the soil, then particles will detach and move away in either splash or in surface flows. • As the force increases so does the rate of detachment. This gives the first clue to keeping erosion down to acceptable limits. • We can do very little about reducing the force applied by the rain, but we can work at dissipating its energy before it reaches the soil surface.
CONSEQUENCES OF SOIL EROSION?
• Loss of physical material reduced depth for plant roots, less soil moisture stored for plant use, and depletion of nutrients and organic material. • Lowered plant growth and less organic cycling • Erosion products moving down the catchment and accumulating on lower lands, reducing stream health, and damaging public utilities such as roads, dams and ports. Mountain foothill (on site picture)
EROSION CONTROL PRINCIPLES
Basalt igneous rock (on site picture) There are four basic principles for erosion control: 1. Dissipate the power of the rain, by intercepting with vegetation, mulch or other materials. 2. Minimize the rate of runoff by increasing infiltration the soil and by maximizing the use of water by plants 3. Prevent runoff generating excessive power by controlling slope, and stopping the accumulation and concentration of flows, and 4. Increase the resistance of the soil by increasing its structural strength by raising fertility (via organic cycling) and incorporating sound tillage practices
ECONOMIC MINERAL DEPOSITS :
1.) BAUXITE DEPOSITS : • TUNGAR PLATEAU is the most promising of all the aluminous laterites reported in the district. The plateau rises to an elevation of about 665 meters and is situated in the northwest of Bassein • BAUXITE is a naturally occurring, heterogeneous material composed primarily of one or more aluminum hydroxide minerals, plus various mixtures of silica, iron oxide, titania, aluminosilicate, and other impurities in minor or trace amounts.
The forest area (on site picture)
EROSION CONTROL TECHNIQUES:Bauxite deposits 1. Crop Rotation 2. Conservation Tillage 3. Cover Crops 4. Fibre Rolls 1. 4. 6. 5. Gabions 6. Hydro seeding 7. Mulching 8. Polyacrylamide 9. Reforestation 11. 10.Riparian Strip 13. 7. 11.Riprap 12.Strip Farming Salt pans 13.Terracing 14.Windbreaks
• The principal aluminum hydroxide minerals found in varying proportions with bauxites are gibbsite and the polymorphs boehmite and diaspore. • Bauxites are typically classified according to their intended commercial application: abrasive, cement, chemical, metallurgical, refractory, etc. • There are numerous bauxite deposits, mainly in the tropical and subtropical regions. • Bauxite is generally extracted by open cast mining from strata, typically some 4-6 metres thick under a shallow covering of topsoil and vegetation. In most cases the topsoil is removed and stored. 2.) COMMON SALT : • Common salt is collected in artificial evaporation pans along the coast. It is a thriving industry. 3.) BUILDING MATERIAL : • Basalt is widely used as construction material. The coarse grained basalt is quarried where it is well joined 4.) GROUNDWATER : • Individual flows in the district have an average thickness of 15-25 meters; and the individual vesicular traps there of are often up to five meters in thickness. Vesicular traps occurring below water-table are generally the repositories of groundwater, which are tapped locally by open wells. Such wells penetrating the vesicular unit fully are likely to yield large quantity of water. In immediately coastal areas, the vesicular traps are, however, contaminated with saline water due to tidal influence. The scope, therefore, exists in effectively harnessing the vesicular trap units when they occur below watertable in low-lying areas outside the tidal influence. 12.
SOIL SAMPLES TESTING ANALYSIS
Red and Yellow soil
• Red and yellow soils are found in areas, which receive low rainfall. • They generally develop on metamorphic rocks. • They contain huge concentration of iron Red Soil Yellow Soil oxides that are responsible for giving the reddish or yellow colour. • They are less clayey and sandier and are poor in important minerals like lime, phosphorous and nitrogen. • Red soil is acidic like that of the Lateritic soil.
TYPE OF SOIL FOUND IN WADA TALUKA.
• Soil is the result of the transformation of the underlying rock under the influence of a range of physical, chemical and biological processes related to biological and climatic conditions and to human, animal and plant life.
Types of Soils found on site 1. 2. 3. Laterite soil Regur soil Red and yellow soil
•This typical soil is found in those regions which receive heavy rainfall. •This soil is poor in lime content and hence it is more acidic. • It is basically red in colour because of the presence of iron oxides. • This soil contains least moisture content. •It is used for growing tea,coffee,rubber and coconut and fruits. Black soil (on site picture) Black Soil Laterite Soil
This soil is mainly cultivated during the monsoon rainy season.
•Black soils are also known as Regur soils. •This soil becomes sticky when is wet owing to the high •quantity of clay deposition. • It does not contain adequate nitrogen but it contains sufficient phosphorous required for the growth of the plants. •It has been formed from lava rocks soil.Black soil is found in Deccan Trap which covers large areas of Maharashtra,Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh. •It is suitable for cotton, sugarcane,wheat,millets,tobacco and oilseeds •This type of soil has a natural resistance to wind and water erosion because it is rich in iron and granular in structure. • A very important advantage of this type of soil is that it can retain moisture. This makes the soil very reactive to irrigation. Red soil (on site picture)
SOIL AND GEOLOGY
GORAD VILLAGE, WADA, MAHARASHTRA
SITE ANALYSIS ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN STUDIO II – ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING OF GORAD VILLAGE M.ARCH ENVIRONMENTAL ARCHITECTURE RACHANA SANSAD’S INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL ARCHITECTURE, MUMBAI
PRIYALUCY D’SOUZA R. NO. 06 SHRIHARSH DIXIT R. NO. 03 HARSHIL SAFI R.NO. 00
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