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History :Scientific interest in themanufacturing of gas produced by the natural decomposition of organic matter was first reported in the 17th century by Robert Boyleand Stephen Hale, who noted that flammable gas was released by disturbing the sedimentof streams and lakes.In 1808, Sir Humphry Davydetermined that methane was present in the gases produced bycattlemanure.The first anaerobic digester was built by aleper colonyin Bombay,India, in 1859. In 1895, the technology was developed inExeter,England, where a septic tank was used to generate gas for the sewer gas destructor lamp, a type ofgas lighting. Also in England, in 1904, the first dual-purpose tank for 5/25/12 bothsedimentationand sludge treatment was

Definition:- It is an organic matter produced by plant and their derivatives & animal manure. Bio-energy:- energy produced from biomass Bio- mass can be considered one form of solar

energy. Plants are grow by photosynthesis. It is renewable energy sources because the organic matter generated round the year. Fossil fuel like coal, petroleum products and natural gas are not considered as bio mass since they are produces from dead biomass under pressure and temperature during several years.

Bio mass resources classification:




Biomass obtain from agriculture fields, crops, forests. Biomass obtain from waste (Municipal waste, animal & human waste) Biomass converted into liquid fuels like methanol, ethanol.


Biomass is produced in photosynthesis process which convert solar energy into biomass energy. This process only occurs in green plants. It is the process which combined CO2 from atmosphere with
water in presence of light energy to produce carbohydrates( sugar ,starch, celluloses, etc) and oxygen. Photosynthesis process can be represented by the following equation: 6CO2 + 6H2O +light energy PHOTOSYNTHESIS C6H12O6 + 6O2


ENERGY CONVERSION FROM BIOMASS:There various methods for conversion of biomass into energy classified as follows: 1. Direct combustion 2. Thermo chemical conversion 3. Biochemical conversion
DIRECT COMBUSTION:Direct burning of biomass is the most straightforward method of energy production. Mankind has burned wood and other forms of biomass for thousands of years, to keep warm, to cook food, and eventually to forge weapons and other tools. The energy released by direct combustion takes the form of heat, and can be used to directly influence the temperature of a small environment or to power steam-driven turbines to produce electricity. Unfortunately, the burning of biomass is 5/25/12 the cause of a great deal ofpollutionand has contributed to

THERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION: The thermo chemical reactions can convert the organic biomass into more valuable and convenient form of products as gaseous and liquid fuels at different pressure and temperatures. These processes are as below: Gasification :- Gasificationis a process that convertsbiomass materials intocarbon monoxide, hydrogenandcarbon dioxide. This is achieved by reacting the material at high temperatures (>700C), without combustion, with a controlled amount ofoxygen. The resulting gas mixture is calledsyngas(fromsynthesis gasorsynthetic gas) orproducer gasand is itself a fuel. The power derived from gasification of biomass and combustion of the resultant gas is considered to be a source ofrenewable energy;the gasification of fossil fuel derived materials such as plastic is not considered to be 5/25/12 renewable energy.

PYROLYSIS:-Pyrolysis involves the heating of biomass in the absence of oxygen. Biomass such as wood or agricultural waste is heated to around 1000 degrees Fahrenheit and allowed to decompose into gas and charcoal (carbon). A major advantage of Pyrolysis is that carbon dioxide, one of the main drawbacks to most biomass energy conversion processes, is not produced. A disadvantage, however, is that the biomass must be heated to relatively high 5/25/12 temperatures, a process that in and of

BIOCHEMICAL CONVERSION:As biomass is a natural material, many highly efficient biochemical processes have developed in nature to break down the molecules of which biomass is composed, and many of these biochemical conversion processes can be harnessed. Biochemical conversion makes use of the enzymes of bacteria and other micro-organisms to break down biomass. In most cases microorganisms are used to perform the conversion process: anaerobic digestion AND fermentation .Another way of breaking down biomass is by breaking down the carbohydrates and simple sugars to make alcohol. However, this process has not been 5/25/12 perfected yet. Scientists are still researching the

BIOGAS GENERATION:Biogas is produced by anaerobic decomposition of organic waste by suitable bacteria. It contains 55-65 % of methane and remaining percent CO2 and other impurities. Main source of production of biogas are crop residue, wet cow dung, vegetable waste, poultry dropping, other waste etc. Any organic material which is easily bio degradable. The material from which biogas is produced retains its value as fertilizer can be used after certain processing. Biogas can be produced by digestion Pyrolysis. Digestion is a biological process that occurs in absence of O2 and in presence of anaerobic 5/25/12 organisms at normal pressure and temperature (35-


There are four key biological and chemical stages of anaerobic digestion: Hydrolysis Acidogenesis Acetogenesis Methanogenesis In most cases, biomass is made up of large organic polymers. For the bacteria in anaerobic digesters to access the energy potential of the material, these chains must first be broken down into their smaller constituent parts. These constituent parts, or monomers, such as sugars, are readily available to other bacteria. The process of breaking these chains and 5/25/12 dissolving the smaller molecules into solution

Acetate and hydrogen produced in the first stages can be used directly by methanogens. Other molecules, such as volatile fatty acids (VFAs) with a chain length greater than that of acetate must first becatabolisedinto compounds that can be directly used by methanogens. The biological process ofacidogenesisresults in further breakdown of the remaining components by acidogenic (fermentative) bacteria. Here, VFAs are created, along with ammonia, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide, as well as other by-products.The process of acidogenesis is similar to the way milk sours. The third stage of anaerobic digestion is 5/25/12

The terminal stage of anaerobic digestion is the biological process ofmethanogenesis. Here, methanogens use the intermediate products of the preceding stages and convert them into methane, carbon dioxide, and water. These components make up the majority of the biogas emitted from the system. Methanogenesis is sensitive to both high and low pHs and occurs between pH 6.5 and pH 8.The remaining, indigestible material the microbes cannot use and any dead bacterial remains constitute the digestate. A simplified generic chemical equation for the overall processes outlined above is as follows: C6H12O6 3CO2+ 3CH4


Advantages of biogas production

1. 2.

3. 4.

Waste material available after processing can be used as fertilizer. The biogas after removal of CO2 produces an excellent fuel as CH4 gas. Gas production is cheap. Sewage waste after production of biogas is converted into less offensive slurry.


Factors affecting production of biogas:Temperature & pressure Solid concentration and loading rate Retention period pH value Nutrients composition Toxic substance Digester size & shape Stirring agitation of the content of digester


Temperature & pressure: Process of anaerobic fermentation and methane forming bacteria works best in the temperature range of 25-55 C and pressure about 1.1-1.2 bar

Rate of gas production increase with temperature but percentage of methane reduced. 35-38 C is the best range for methane production.

If the temperature is lower than 20 C rate of gas production sharply reduced and almost stop at 10 C.

So, in cold climate ,it is necessary to heat the digester to 35 C. Solid concentration and loading rate: 5/25/12

Retention period: It represents the time period for which the fermentable material remains inside the digester. This period ranges from 35 days to 50days depending upon atmospheric condition. pH value or hydrogen ion concentration: pH value indicates the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a solution. pH value in the range 0-7 represents acidic solution and in the range 7-14 indicates the alkaline solution. In the initial stage of acid forming stage of digestion, pH value may be around 6 or less, however during methane formation stage pH value higher than 7 is maintained since methane formers are sensitive to acidity . For above reasons the optimum pH value of digester 5/25/12 solution between 7-8 is recommended.

Toxic substances: The presence of ammonia, pesticides , detergents, heavy metals are considered as toxic substance to micro-organisms since their presence reduces the fermentation rate. if digested slurry allowed to remain in digester beyond certain time, it become toxic to micro-organism growth. Digester size and shape: It is found that the biogas production per unit volume of digester is high when its diameter to depth ratio ranges between 0.66 to 1. Stirring or agitation of the content of digester: Since bacteria in the digester has very limited range

Classification of biogas plant:

Biogas plants are built in different size and shapes depending upon process carried out. These plants are mainly classified as: 1. Continuous or batch type 2. Dome and drum type Continuous & batch type biogas plant: Continuous type biogas plant: in which biomass fed regularly to the digester delivers the biogas continuously. They are two types namely as: 1) Single stage continuous type plant: in this plant conversion of biomass into biogas are carried out in 5/25/12 the single chamber .

Then dilute acids are only fed into second chamber where the stage II of methane formation is carried out. The biogas so produced is collected from the second chamber. Advantages of these plants is that it produce more amount of biogas , required less space and lesser period of digestion as compared to single stage plant. Disadvantages are that plant is costlier , difficult to operate and maintain. Single stage for small size plant Double stage for larger size plant.


Batch type biogas plant :- the biomass feeding is done in batches with large time interval between the two consecutive batches. a digester is loaded with feed and given sufficient time (30-40 days) for digestion of biomass. After completion of digestion, the residue is emptied and it is again charged with the next batch of feed. in this type of plant biogas production is uneven. Silent features of batch type plants are:
v v v v

Gas production is uneven Need several digester for continuous supply of gas The cost and space required is high 5/25/12 Need addition of fermented slurry to start the

Dome & drum type biogas plant: Various models of dome and drum type of biogas plants have been developed by the various agencies. These are mainly of two types: 1) Floating drum type biogas plants. 2) Fixed dome type biogas plants. Floating drum type biogas plant (constant pressure type): Many models of floating drum type biogas plants have been developed in various countries. One of the model is discussed here. Floating drum type KVIC model: 5/25/12 a common gobar gas plant suggested by khadi


Advantages of KVIC plant: High gas production rate No problem of gas leakage Work under constant pressure naturally. No problem of mixing of biogas with external air, thus no danger of explosion.

Disadvantages : it has higher cost Heat is lost through metal gas holder. Requires painting of drum to avoid corrosion at least twice a year. 5/25/12 Required maintenance of pipe and joint.

Fixed dome type biogas plants: In fixed dome type biogas plants, the digester and the gas dome are combined and enclosed in the same chamber. These type of plants are more economical compared to floating dome type. The digester is usually built below the ground level, which is suitable in regions having cold climate. total volume inside the dome remains constant due to which it is also called as 5/25/12 constant volume type biogas plant. So, the

1. Fixed dome type domestic biogas plant ( janta model or Chinese model):


Flexible bag type biogas plant:


Fixed dome type deenbandhu model biogas plant:


Advantages of fixed dome type plant: Cost is less as compared to floating type Loss of heat is negligible ( construction is under ground) No corrosion problem It is maintenance free.

Disadvantages of fixed dome type plants:

Need skilled labour to operate Gas production/m3 of digester volume is less Gas production at variable pressure.

Site selection for biogas plant:

Minimum distance between gas production and gas consumption. Should be made open space to utilize sun energy since the biogas production is high above 25 C temperature. Sufficient amount of water is available Sufficient space is available for its operation and maintenance. Application of biogas: The composition of biogas are as below: CH4 50-65%
CO2 30-45% H2 and N2 5-10% H2S and O2 very small amount