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NS ZAIN JAVED NS IQRA NAWAZISH

GREEN’S THEOREM

• DEFINITION & PROOF • RELATION TO OTHER THEOREMS • APPLICATIONS

F is a twodimensional vector field and C is a closed path that lies in the plane). a path where the endpoint is the same as the beginning point). • One way to compute this circulation is. But.. then Green’s theorem applies and we can use Green’s theorem as an alternative way to calculate the line integral.e. for example. If F were the velocity field of water flow. of course. .. the integral • ∫ CF ⋅ ds represents the circulation of F around C.e. if our line integral happens to be in two dimensions (i.THE IDEA OF GREEN’S THEROEM • When C is an oriented closed path (i. this integral would indicate how much the water tends to circulate around the path in the direction of its orientation. to compute the line integral directly.

Green’s theorem is simply a relationship between the macroscopic circulation around the curve C and the sum of all the microscopic circulation that is inside C. D is the “interior” of the curve C. If C is a closed curve in the plane. Green’s theorem says that if you add up all the microscopic circulation inside C. then it surrounds some region D in the plane. then that total is exactly the same as the macroscopic circulation around C .

we can write Green’s theorem as . Therefore.• “Adding up” the microscopic circulation in D means taking the double integral of the microscopic circulation over D.

PROOF OF GREEN’S THEOREM .

AREA OF A REGION • Green's theorem can be used to compute area by line integral. The area of D is given by Provided we choose L and M such that: Then the area is given by: Possible formulas for the area of D include .

Green's theorem is equivalent to the following two-dimensional version of the divergence theorem: . when applied to a region on the xy-plane: Considering only two-dimensional vector fields.RELATIONSHIP WITH OTHER THEROEMS Green's theorem is a special case of Stoke’s Theorem.

DISCRETE GREEN’S THEOREM • In discrete geometry. discrete versions of Green’s Theorem describe the relationship between a double integral of a function over a generalized rectangular domain D (a domain which is formed by a finite unification of rectangles). and a linear combination of the given function's cumulative distribution function at the corners of the domain. • The discrete Green's theorem is being used for fast calculations in computer applications such as objects detection in images. . and in efficient calculations of probabilities.

which replicates the boundary conditions of the problem . The name originates from the replacement of certain elements in the original layout with imaginary charges. • The method of image charges (also known as the method of images and method of mirror charges) is a basic problemsolving tool in electrostatics.METHOD OF IMAGE CHARGES • A method used in electrostatics takes advantage of the uniqueness theorem (derived from Green's theorem).

• Green’s theorem is a vector identity that relates the surface integral of a boundary to its line integral. One of which is the estimation of area of the image using green’s theorem. It says that the area of a surface can be calculated by the equation: which can be expressed in discrete form as: .TWO-DIMENSIONAL IMAGE PROCESSING USING GREEN’S THEOREM • Its basically done in series of complicated step.

and the background black. . The area to calculate should be set to white. We begin by applying these basic methods on the simple figures below: We first make sure the images are in their binary form in order for the machine to easily interpret the values. we can use the coordinates (x and y) or the pixel locations of the image in order to compute for the area of interest. Then we count the number of these figures which precisely calculates the area of the figure.• When dealing with images.

a grayscale of the original fingerprint. . B. A. • It’s used in finger prints enhancement and analysis.This is followed by some godlike programming :P which ultimately in the end gives us sharp images that are less blur. Fingerprint ridge enhancement. an enhanced image of the fingerprint after filtering.

Helicopter view of the National Science Complex of the University of the Philippines Diliman.Binary representation of the land area. .

tubular insulating layer. surrounded by a tubular conducting shield. or coax. such as electromagnetic waves or sound waves. The term coaxial comes from the inner conductor and the outer shield sharing the same geometric axis. is an electrical cable with an inner conductor surrounded by a flexible. • Coaxial cable.Applications of Green's Theorem to Overmoded Coaxial Waveguide • A waveguide is a structure which guides waves. .

• Electromagnetic boundary-value problems supported by closed-form solutions provide a framework for efficient and optimized design methods. Here the Green's theorem is applied to describe the relationship between the current in a coaxial probe and the electromagnetic fields inside an overmoded coaxial airspace . Closed-form Green's theorem models are used when a welldefined source is coupled to a well-defined space or structure. .

Geometry and field plot for coaxial wrap-around TE01 mode converter Taper Converters .

But the TU144 ceased its regular operation some time before 1985 because of problems with the engines and wing design. Europe. • Now these problems were raised as general methods of solution are given for the two and three dimensional steady-state and two-dimensional unsteady-state equations. and Japan. the TU-144 developed by the Soviet Union and the Concorde by the joint of UK and France. development of a next generation supersonic transport (SST) is under consideration in the United States. The solutions of the particular equations are determined in all cases by means of Green's theorem. In the absence of thickness effects. There have been a few supersonic transport so far.The Application of Green's Theorem to the Solution of Boundary-Value Problems in Linearized Supersonic Wing Theory • With a recent trend of the world wide growth of air transportation. linear theory yields solutions consistent with the assumptions made when applied to lifting-surface problems for swept-back plan forms at sonic speeds. such as. .

• Anyhow these designs are still on paper and only in the form theories and abstract published by the Tohoku University. Tokyo 182. Chofu. Sendai. Japan and National Aerospace Laboratory. Japan .

The region is not simply connected. . Consider the following example.AREA OF REGION WITH HOLES • Unlike other line integral formulas Green’s Theorem can be used to find the area of regions with holes in them.

MOMENTS & CENTROIDS • Green’s theorem allows to express the coordinates of the centroid as line integrals. One just has to find the right vector fields for each coordinate. For example. .

linear and Prytz or "hatchet" planimeters. • The main types of mechanical planimeter are polar. • The planimeter contains a measuring wheel that rolls along the drawing as the operator traces the contour. . • They consist of a linkage with a pointer on one end. • Tracing around the perimeter of a surface induces a movement in another part of the instrument and a reading of this is used to establish the area of the shape.PLANIMETER • A planimeter is a measuring instrument used to determine the area of an arbitrary two-dimensional shape. used to trace around the boundary of the shape. The other end of the linkage is fixed for a polar planimeter and restricted to a line for a linear planimeter.

Polar planimeter A linear planimeter on scrolls for the determination of stretched shapes .

For the polar planimeter the "elbow" is connected to an arm with fixed other endpoint O. causing the wheel to skid. Connected to the arm ME is the measuring wheel with its axis of rotation parallel to ME. and a movement parallel to ME. with no contribution to its reading.• The area of the shape is proportional to the number of turns through which the measuring wheel rotates when the planimeter is traced along the complete perimeter of the shape. causing the wheel to rotate. A movement of the arm ME can be decomposed into a movement perpendicular to ME. . Polar planimeter Linear planimeter For the linear planimeter the movement of the "elbow" E is restricted to the yaxis.

• The operation of a linear planimeter can be justified by applying Green’s Theorem onto the components of the vector field N. This vector field is perpendicular to the measuring arm EM: and has a constant size. given by: where b is the y-coordinate of the elbow E. equal to the length m of the measuring arm: because: .

Gracias . Merci or as simply stated Thank You for Listening Thank-you .

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