Electro-mechanical Equipment in Hydro Power Station

Main Electro-Mechanical Equipments

Turbine
• •

MIV (Spherical Valve)/Butterfly Valve Governing System

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Mechanical Auxiliaries like Cooling water system, drainage dewatering system, Fire fighting system HVAC etc. Generator Electrical Auxiliaries like Bus Duct, LT/HT switchgears, DC battery system, earthing, cabling, Station/Auxiliary Transformer etc. Generator Transformers Switchyard and Pot head yard XLPE Cables/Tie line Control and Instrumentation Systems( SCADA)

Hydraulic Turbines
Hydraulic Turbines Impulse Turbine Reaction Turbine

Pelton Turbine

Francis Turbine

Propeller Turbine Kaplan Turbine
Bulb Turbine

Deriaz Turbine

Types of Hydraulic Turbines

Reaction Turbines

• • •

Derive power from pressure drop across turbine Totally immersed in water Angular & linear motion converted to shaft power Propeller, Francis, and Kaplan turbines
Convert kinetic energy of water jet hitting buckets No pressure drop across turbines Pelton, Turgo, and crossflow turbines

Impulse Turbines
• • •

Pelton Turbine

PELTON ARRANGEMENT

Runner

Sectional View

Spiral Casing

Francis Turbine

Kaplan Turbine

Deriaz Turbine

Spiral case and wicket gates/Nozzles- to direct and control the water entering the turbine runner. The spiral case is a steel-lined conduit connected to the penstock or intake conduit, and it distributes flow uniformly into the turbine. Wicket gates are adjustable vanes that surround the turbine runner entrances and they control the area available for water to enter the turbine.

SELECTION CRITERIA FOR TYPE OF HYDRO TURBINE
Depends mainly on:
•Head available •Specific Speed •Impulse Turbine :- Pelton Wheel turbine for Head>300m •Reaction Turbine:- Francis Turbine for Head 30m to 400m Kaplan Turbine for Head 10m to 60m Bulb/Tubular Turbine Head 3 to 30m

In the overlapping zone of head more detailed analysis is required from techno-economic considerations.

Tapovan Vishnugad, Head-494, Pelton Sp. Speed-54.6

Tapovan Vishnugad, Head-494, Francis Sp. Speed-78

Loharinag Pala. Head438, Pelton Sp. Speed56 Overlapping Region between Francis and Pelton Turbine

Loharinag Pala. Head438, Francis Sp. Speed85.3

Figure 1: Selection of turbines; Head vs Specific Speed (Ns) (Source:IS:12837:1989)

Turbines of NTPC Projects
PROJECT
Koldam(4X200 MW)

TYPE OF TURBINE
Francis

Loharinag Pala(4X150 MW) Tapovan Vishnugad(4X130 MW)
Lata-Tapovan(3X57 MW) Rammam

Pelton Pelton
Francis Pelton

Main Inlet Valve
Main inlet valves at the inlet of the turbine are installed to isolate the flow in case of maintenance and emergency .

Spherical Valve
Generally used as Main Inlet Valve for high head installation in case of the Pelton type of turbine (In LNP &TVN)

Butterfly valve
Generally used as Main Inlet Valve for medium head installation in case of the Francis type of turbine (In Koldam) and as Penstock valve (e.g. LNP& TVN)

Cross-section of Power house -LNP

L-section of Power house -LNP

MIV floor drawing -LNP

Governing System

It regulates the speed and the output of the Turbine-Generator units by controlling the position of the wicket gates (in Francis) and Nozzles (in Pelton) to adjust the water flow through the turbine. The hydraulic turbine governor is equipment to control the guide vanes/ nozzles by detecting the turbine speed and the opening of the guide vane/nozzles in order to keep the turbine speed stable or to regulate its output. Accordingly the controllability of the power station and the quality of the electric power depends upon the performance of the governor. It operates the Deflector (in Pelton) in case of sudden load rejection to divert the water jet.

Contd…

Main components of the Governor system Oil Pressure Unit Pressure accumulator Electro-Hydro actuator Pressurizing system

Air Pressure (40-70Kg/cm2) Nitrogen pressure (100 Kg/cm2 and above)

High pressure systems are compact as compared to the Low pressure system. Due to space constraints in case of underground Power house, generally high pressure system is used . Koldam –Air pressure system LNP&TVN- Nitrogen/Air High Pressure System

Schematic diagram of Governor

DEFLECTOR SERVOMOTOR

LINKAGE ARRANGEMENT OF DEFLECTOR SERVOMOTOR

NOZZLE SERVOMOTOR

OIL PRESSURE UNIT

Mechanical Auxiliaries


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Cranes Cooling Water System & General water system Fire Fighting system Air conditioning and Ventilation System Drainage and dewatering system

Cranes

Cranes used in the hydro-power house
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Power house crane Transformer house crane (in case of underground PH) Butterfly valve house crane

Capacity of the PH crane is decided by heaviest equipment (Generally Generator Rotor) to be lifted by the crane. When the weight of the heaviest equipment is very high then 2 PH cranes are used in the tandem PH Crane is one of the most important equipment because it plays a major role in the erection of the equipments.

TF and BF valve House crane

TF hall crane is used for the erection and maintenance of the GIS equipments. BF valve house crane is used for the erection and maintenance of the Butterfly valve.

Cooling Water System

Water is used to cool the various equipments like
• • • •

Generator air cooler Thrust bearing Guide bearing/Shaft seal Generator transformer

Due to heavy silt content in river water closed loop cooling system is adopted and circulating water is cooled in Plate heat exchanger (PHE). Koldam, LNP &TVN- closed loop cooling system.

Schematic diagram of CWS-LNP

COOLING WATER SYSTEM

COOLING WATER PUMPS

COOLING WATER FILTERS

Air conditioning and ventilation system


Air conditioning units (For control room , Shift engineer room and conference room ) Ventilation Supply and Exhaust air fans Supply and return air ducts Air Handling Units

Air conditioning and ventilation system- LNP

Fire Protection system

Fire alarm and Detection system – By means of Smoke detector, heat detector Protection system

Water based
• • •

Hydrant system Medium velocity spray system High velocity spray system

• •

Inert gas clean agent system Portable fire extinguisher

Generator

Convert the mechanical power produced by the turbine into the electrical power. Major Components• • • •

Shaft : coupled with turbine shaft and rotates synchronously. Rotor :series of large electromagnets that spins inside Stator. Stator : a tightly-wound coil of copper wire around rotor. Excitation system: sends an DC current to the rotor.

As the turbine blades turn, so do a series of magnets inside the generator, Giant magnets (i.e. rotor) rotate past copper coils (i.e. Stator), producing alternating current (AC).

A cross- sectional view of Hydroturbine-Generator Unit

Generator parameters
• • • • • • • • • • •

Output capacity in KVA Rated speed Rated Voltage Power factor Insulation system Reactive power capability Short Circuit Ratio (SCR) Inertia constant/Fly Wheel Effect Generator efficiency Bearing arrangement Cooling system Excitation system

Bearing arrangement
• • •

Umbrella type- Thrust bearing is placed below the rotor, a guide bearing
surrounds it . Mostly used for higher diameter and lower speed. Semi-Umbrella type - Thrust bearing is placed below the rotor and guide bearing is installed above the rotor. Suspended type - combined thrust bearing and guide bearing on top bracket above the rotor

Cooling system of Generator
 

Air cooling is used for large hydro generators Cooling of the machine should be as uniform as possible. Cooling is achieved by forced air cooling by natural fan action of the rotor or with supplementary motor operated cooling fans In our design, cooling is achieved by axial fan fitted on rotor.

EXCITATION SYSTEM
STATIC EXCITATION SYSTEM Static, potential source rectifier exciters are generally used for medium to large generators. They are also used for smaller generating sets, partly owing to the free choice of location and the reduced length of the set and because of the fast-acting response to network transients. Static potential source rectifier exciters derive the necessary electrical power directly from the terminals of the generator. They consist of a power transformer, the thyristor control element, the electronic regulator and the de-excitation unit. BRUSHLESS EXCITATION SYSTEM The essential components of a brushless exciter system are the ac exciter machine with its rectifier bridge and the electronic regulator. Power for the voltage regulator can be provided by a permanent magnet generator or via a transformer from the generator terminals. The brushless exciter consists of a salient-pole synchronous generator with a three-phase winding in the rotor and a dc exciter winding in the stator. It is mounted on the generator shaft. At the non-driving end of the rotor is the diode carrier ring with six silicon diodes in a bridge connection.

Transformers

A transformer is an electrical device that takes electricity of one voltage and changes it into another voltage.

Type of TF used in hydro power plant

Generator Transformer- It takes the low voltage Supply from the
Generator and converts it into High voltage to be transmitted to the Grid.

Unit auxiliary Transformer- It takes the supply from the generator
output and converts it to low voltage for the auxiliary consumption of the unit.

Station Transformer - Used to feed the equipments which are common for the station.

Electrical Single Line Diagram

Classification based on Cooling arrangement of TF
 

Air cooled Water cooled


Koldam LNP TVN

Switchyard
 

It is an interface between generating Unit and Grid.Used to evacuate the generated power to grid. Elements of Switchyard: • Bus bar • Insulators • Circuit Breakers (SF6, Vacuum, Air, Gas etc.) • Isolators • Current Transformer (CT) • Capacitive Voltage Transformer (CVT) • Surge Arrestor • Lightning Protection System • Wave Trap

Types of Switchyard
 

SURFACE – low cost, Large space requirement, In case of steep slope Stepping of the area Under ground – Due to space constrain GIS (Gas insulated switchyard ), Small area requirement.

Factor affecting selection of type of AIS and GIS
• • •

Space Terrain Cost

  

Koldam – Over ground LNP - GIS TVN - GIS

GIS
    

     

Insulating Medium – SF6 Low space requirement due to reduction in clearances Unaffected by climatic conditions such as rains etc. No corona losses SF6 has excellent properties to be used as an insulating medium, very high dielectric strength, chemically inert, non-inflammable, non poisonous Costly equipments Online monitoring of pressure of SF6 gas is required Main features: pressure of SF6 gas selected from 5-40 bar depending upon the requirements Bare conductors run inside metallic enclosures surrounded by pressurized sf6 gas All CT’s, circuit breakers, PT’s etc are inside the metal clad enclosures GIS will be used first time in NTPC in Loharinag pala and Tapovan Vishnugad HEPP

GAS INSULATED SWITCHGEAR

XLPE Cable

XLPE STANDS FOR Cross linked polyethylene insulated power cable (XLPE cable) XLPE cable is used as interconnecting circuit between GIS and transmission lines through overhead pothead yard. XLPE cables are generally used because the distance between GIS and pothead yard is more and through a Cable ventilation tunnel. 400 KV XLPE cables are used for first time in NTPC in Loharinag Pala and Tapovan Vishnugad HEPP

XLPE CABLES..

Electrical Auxiliaries

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BUSDUCT DC supply system Grounding system Illumination

BUS DUCTS AND UCBs

BUS DUCT

Bus ducts

DC supply system

D.C. Supply distribution systems typically contains:• • •

Batteries Battery Chargers Distribution Boards

D.C. Batteries

Batteries are required at most of the hydro-electric stations for control alarm annunciation, protection, communication, emergency lighting and solenoid operated valves and field flashing requirements of generating units. In general, lead acid batteries are widely used. The standard voltage rating for the batteries used are 110 V or 220 V depending on the DC load of the power station. Batteries are generally designed with 10% design margin and 25% of aging factor. Small and medium hydro plant one battery set (110 V) with two battery chargers and for large hydro stations, two battery sets (220 V each) and one 48 V battery set with two (2) chargers for each battery are generally recommended. Minimum load requirement on D.C. system is generator field flash load for one unit and emergency lighting.

Battery Chargers

The battery charger having rectifiers with thyristors are usually used for charging the battery system. The charging is generally in float charging i.e. the batteries are kept in float charging condition in the normal operation. In case of commissioning of the batteries and otherwise the boost charger is used to charge the boost batteries.

Grounding System

Separate groundmat, if feasible, be provided for power house, switchyard, remote structures such as control buildings, communication buildings, spillway gate structures, storage buildings, etc.

Power House Grounding System be designed to provide a maximum 1.0 ohm resistance to ground.
If the control, computer and communication rooms are located in electrically noisy areas (e.g. VFC drives(in case pumped staorage), high voltage GIS equipment etc), a "High-frequency signal reference ground grid beneath a false floor shall be considered, to provide a noise-free, low impedence ground to the equipment. Switchyard grounding electrode systems should be designed to provide a maximum of 1.0 ohm resistance to ground. The switchyard mat should extend 1.5 - 2.0 mts. outside the switchyard fencing. Touch and Step potentials limit be maintained to an acceptable value.

Illumination

General indoor and outdoor lighting and receptacle are served by 3-Ø, 4 wire A.C. system. Transformers and panels are located so as to optimize wiring and to limit voltage drops to acceptable values.
• •

Fluorescent lamps are most used in interior spaces High-density Discharge (HD)

Sodium vapour lighting fixtures are preferred for outdoor lighting such as switchyards, spillways and dams, parking areas etc. Automatic switching via photo electric cells can be adopted for outdoor lighting to optimize power consumption. Metal-halide fixtures are used for certain indoor areas such as erection bay, generator hall, machine shop, turbine pit and other "high-bay" areas where proper color redention is needed and long-life is essential. Emergency lighting is deployed in the event that normal A.C. power distribution system fails. The emergency requirement are at first met from the diesel generator sets and when all alternatives of A.C. supply fail, battery powered emergency fixtures provide the minimum requirement of lighting. The battery should have sufficient capacity to provide 4 hours uninterrupted illumination independently.

C&I COMPONENTS IN A TYPICAL HYDRO STATION
1. MAIN PLANT CONTROL & INSTRUMENTATION SYSTEM
   

TURBINE, GENERATOR & AUXILIARIES COOLING WATER SYSTEM DRAINAGE & DEWATERING SYSTEM FLOOD DETECTION SYSTEM

2. 3.

SWITCHYARD SCADA AND SUBSTATION AUTOMATION SYSTEM DAM /RESERVOIR INSTRUMENTATION

4.

SPILLWAY INSTRUMENTATION

CONTROL SYSTEM AUTOMATION HIERARCHY
1. LOCAL

2.

3.

4.

UCB - DRIVE - SUB GROUP - GROUP Station - SUB GROUP - GROUP - STATION REMOTE (FUTURE) - GROUP - STATION

THANK YOU

Earth At Night

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