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PETE 661
Drilling Engineering
Lesson 13
Directional Drilling
Slide 2
Directional Drilling
When is it used?
Type I Wells
Type II Wells
Type III Wells
Directional Well Planning & Design
Survey Calculation Methods
Build
and Hold
BuildHold
and Drop
Continuous
Build
KOP
EOC
I II III
Slide 3
Read ADE Ch.8 (Reference)
HW #7
Cementing
due 102502
Slide 4
Inclination Angle
u, o, I
Direction Angle
, c, A
Slide 5
Slide 6
Max.
Horiz.
Depart.
?
Slide 7
Slide 8
Slide 9
Slide 10
Slide 11
Slide 12
Type I Type II Type III
Build
and Hold
BuildHold
and Drop
Continuous
Build
KOP
EOC
Slide 13
Ax
Ay
I
I
r
r
AL
In the BUILD
Section
Ax = r (1  cos I)
Ay = r sin I
AL = r I
rad
deg
I r
180
= L

.

\

t
A
BUR *
000 , 18
r
t
=
Slide 14
Slide 15
Fig. 8.11
4 2 1 3 1
x r r and x r < + <
Slide 16
4 2 1 3 1
x r r and x r > + <
3D Wells
Slide 17
N18E
N55W
S20W
S23E
Azimuth
Angle
Slide 18
Slide 19
Example 1: Design of Directional Well
Design a directional well with the following
restrictions:
• Total horizontal departure = 4,500 ft
• True vertical depth (TVD) = 12,500 ft
• Depth to kickoff point (KOP) = 2,500 ft
• Rate of build of hole angle = 1.5 deg/100 ft
• Type I well (build and hold)
Slide 20
Example 1: Design of Directional Well
(i) Determine the maximum hole angle
required.
(ii) What is the total measured depth (MD)?
(MD = well depth measured
along the wellbore,
not the vertical depth)
Slide 21
(i) Maximum
Inclination
Angle
r
1
=
18 000
15
,
. t
r
2
= 0
( )
D
4 1
12 500 2 500
10 000
÷
= ÷
=
D
ft
, ,
,
Slide 22
(i) Maximum Inclination Angle
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷
÷ + ÷
=
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷ +
+ ÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷
=
÷
500 , 4 ) 820 , 3 ( 2
500 , 4 ) 820 , 3 ( 2 000 , 10 500 , 4 000 , 10
tan 2
x ) r r ( 2
x ) r r ( 2 ) D D ( x D D
tan 2
2 2
1 
4 2 1
4 2 1
2
1 4
2
4 1 4 1
max
u
3 . 26
max
= u
Slide 23
(ii) Measured Depth of Well
ft 265 , 9 L
105 , 4 sin L
ft 4,105
395 500 , 4 x
ft 395
) 26.3 cos  3,820(1
) cos 1 ( r x
Hold
Hold
Hold
1 Build
=
=
=
÷ =
=
=
÷ =
u
u
Slide 24
(ii) Measured Depth of Well
265 , 9
180
26.3
3,820 2,500
L r D MD
Hold rad 1 1
+

.

\

+ =
+ + =
t
u
ft 518 , 13 MD =
Slide 25
* The actual well path hardly ever coincides with
the planned trajectory
* Important: Hit target within specified radius
Slide 26
What is known?
I
1
, I
2
, A
1
,
A
2
,
AL = AMD
12
Calculate
 = dogleg angle
DLS = 100/AL
Slide 27
Slide 28
(20)
Slide 29
Wellbore Surveying Methods
Average Angle
Balanced Tangential
Minimum Curvature
Radius of Curvature
Tangential
Other Topics
Kicking off from Vertical
Controlling Hole Angle
Slide 30
I, A, AMD
Slide 31
Example  Wellbore Survey Calculations
The table below gives data from a directional survey.
Survey Point Measured Depth Inclination Azimuth
along the wellbore Angle Angle
ft I, deg A, deg
A 3,000 0 20
B 3,200 6 6
C 3,600 14 20
D 4,000 24 80
Based on known coordinates for point C we’ll calculate
the coordinates of point D using the above information.
Slide 32
Example  Wellbore Survey Calculations
Point C has coordinates:
x = 1,000 (ft) positive towards the east
y = 1,000 (ft) positive towards the north
z = 3,500 (ft) TVD, positive downwards
Z
E (x)
N (y)
C
D
Az
N
D
C
Ay
Ax
Slide 33
Example  Wellbore Survey Calculations
I. Calculate the x, y, and z coordinates
of points D using:
(i) The Average Angle method
(ii) The Balanced Tangential method
(iii) The Minimum Curvature method
(iv) The Radius of Curvature method
(v) The Tangential method
Slide 34
The Average Angle Method
Find the coordinates of point D using
the Average Angle Method
At point C, X = 1,000 ft
Y = 1,000 ft
Z = 3,500 ft
80 A 24 I
20 A 14 I
ft 400 MD D, to C from depth Measured
D D
C C
= =
= =
= A
Slide 35
The Average Angle Method
80 A 24 I
20 A 14 I
ft 400 MD D, to C from depth Measured
D D
C C
= =
= =
= A
Z
E (x)
N (y)
C
D
z
N
D
C
y
x
Slide 36
The Average Angle Method
Slide 37
The Average Angle Method
This method utilizes the average of I
1
and I
2
as an
inclination, the average of A
1
and A
2
as a direction, and
assumes all of the survey interval (AMD) to be tangent
to the average angle.
From: API Bulletin D20. Dec. 31, 1985
Slide 38
ft 71 . 83 50 cos sin19 400
cos sin
50
2
80 20
2
19
2
24 14
2
= =
A = A
=
+
=
+
=
=
+
=
+
=
AVG AVG
D C
AVG
D C
AVG
A I MD North
A A
A
I I
I
The Average Angle Method
Slide 39
The Average Angle Method
ft
A I MD East
AVE AVG
76 . 99 50 sin sin19 400
sin sin
= =
A = A
ft
I Vert
AVG
21 . 378 cos19 400
cos 400
= =
= A
Slide 40
The Average Angle Method
At Point D,
X = 1,000 + 99.76 = 1,099.76 ft
Y = 1,000 + 83.71 = 1,083.71 ft
Z = 3,500 + 378.21 = 3,878.21 ft
Slide 41
The Balanced Tangential Method
This method treats half the measured distance (AMD/2) as
being tangent to I
1
and A
1
and the remainder of
the
measured distance (AMD/2) as being tangent to I
2
and A
2.
From: API Bulletin D20. Dec. 31, 1985
Slide 42
The Balanced Tangential Method
ft 59.59
) 80 cos 24 sin 20 cos 14 (sin
2
400
) A cos I sin A cos I (sin
2
MD
North
D D C C
=
+ =
+
A
= A
Slide 43
The Balanced Tangential Method
96.66ft
) 80 sin 24 sin 20 sin 14 (sin
2
400
) A sin I sin A sin I (sin
2
MD
East
D D C C
=
+ =
+
A
= A
Slide 44
The Balanced Tangential Method
ft 77 . 376 ) 14 cos 24 (cos
2
400
) I cos I (cos
2
MD
Vert
C D
= + =
+
A
= A
Slide 45
The Balanced Tangential Method
At Point D,
X = 1,000 + 96.66 = 1,096.66 ft
Y = 1,000 + 59.59 = 1,059.59 ft
Z = 3,500 + 376.77 = 3,876.77 ft
Slide 46
Minimum Curvature Method

Slide 47
Minimum Curvature Method
This method smooths the two straightline segments of the
Balanced Tangential Method using the Ratio Factor RF.
RF = (2/DL) * tan(DL/2) (DL=  and must be in radians)
Slide 48
Minimum Curvature Method
The dogleg angle,  , is given by:
radians 36082 . 0 20.67
0.935609
)) 20 80 cos( 1 ( 24 sin sin14  14)  cos(24
)) A A cos( 1 ( I sin I sin ) I I cos( Cos
C D D C C D
= =
=
÷ ÷ =
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ =


Slide 49
Minimum Curvature Method
The Ratio Factor,
ft 25 . 60 01099 . 1 * 59 . 59
RF ) I cos I sin A cos I (sin
2
MD
North
01099 . 1
2
67 . 20
tan *
3608 . 0
2
RF
Z
tan
2
RF
D D C C
= =
+
A
= A
=

.

\

=
=


2
Slide 50
Minimum Curvature Method
ft 380.91 1.01099 * 376.77
RF ) I cos I (cos
2
MD
Vert
ft 97.72 1.01099 * 96.66
RF ) A sin I sin A sin I (sin
2
MD
East
D C
D D C C
= =
+
A
= A
= =
+
A
= A
Slide 51
Minimum Curvature Method
At Point D,
X = 1,000 + 97.72 = 1,097.72 ft
Y = 1,000 + 60.25 = 1,060.25 ft
Z = 3,500 + 380.91 =3,888.91 ft
Slide 52
The Radius of Curvature Method
ft 79.83
180
) 20 80 )( 14 24 (
) 20 sin 80 )(sin 24 cos 400(cos14
180
) A A )( I I (
) A sin A )(sin I cos I (cos MD
North
2
2
C D C D
C D D C
=

.

\

÷ ÷
÷ ÷
=

.

\

÷ ÷
÷ ÷ A
= A
t
t
Slide 53
The Radius of Curvature Method
ft 95.14
180
) 20 80 )( 14 24 (
) 80 cos 20 )(cos 24 cos 14 (cos 400
180
) A A )( I I (
) A A )(cos I cos I (cos MD
East
2
2
C D C D
D C D C
=

.

\

÷ ÷
÷ ÷
=

.

\

÷ ÷
÷ ÷ A
= A
t
t
( )( )
( )( )
2
180

.

\

t ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ A
= A
C D C D
D C D C
A A I I
A cos A cos I cos I cos MD
East
Slide 54
The Radius of Curvature Method
ft 73 . 377
180
14 24
) 14 sin 400(sin24
180
I I
) I sin I (sin MD
Vert
C D
C D
=

.

\

÷
÷
=

.

\

÷
÷ A
= A
t
t
Slide 55
The Radius of Curvature Method
At Point D,
X = 1,000 + 95.14 = 1,095.14 ft
Y = 1,000 + 79.83 = 1,079.83 ft
Z = 3,500 + 377.73 = 3,877.73 ft
Slide 56
The Tangential Method
80 A 24 I
20 A 14 I
ft 400 MD D, to C from depth Measured
D D
C C
= =
= =
= A
D D
A I MD North cos sin A = A
ft 25 . 28 80 cos 24 sin 400 = =
Slide 57
The Tangential Method
ft 22 . 160 80 sin sin24 400
sin sin
= =
A = A
D D
A I MD East
ft 42 . 365 24 cos 400
I cos 400 Vert
D
= =
= A
Slide 58
The Tangential Method
ft 3,865.42 365.42 3,500 Z
ft 1,028.25 28.25 1,000 Y
ft 1,160.22 160.22 1,000 X
D, Point At
= + =
= + =
= + =
Slide 59
Summary of Results (to the nearest ft)
X Y Z
Average Angle 1,100 1,084 3,878
Balanced Tangential 1,097 1,060 3,877
Minimum Curvature 1,098 1,060 3,881
Radius of Curvature 1,095 1,080 3,878
Tangential Method 1,160 1,028 3,865
Slide 60
Slide 61
Slide 62
Building
Hole Angle
Slide 63
Holding
Hole Angle
Slide 64
Slide 65
CLOSURE
LEAD ANGLE
(HORIZONTAL) DEPARTURE
Slide 66

Slide 67
Tool Face Angle
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