Feed Water System

Presentation outline
• • • • • • Feed Water System Boiler Feed Pump BFP constructional details HP Heaters Feed Regulating Station Drip System

Components of feed water system
• Feed Water System The main equipments coming under this system are: • Boiler Feed Pump : Three per unit of 50% capacity each located in the '0' meter level in the TG bay. • High Pressure Heaters: Normally three in number and are situated in the TG bay • Drip Pumps : Generally two in number of 100% capacity each situated beneath the LP heaters.

Boiler Feed Pump
• To give the required pressure to the Feed water before entering into boiler • Horizontal barrel type multi stage pump located at Zero meter height.

General Arrangement of BFP
Feed Water From D/A Suction Strainer To HPH. Recirculation to FST

Motor Booster Pump S S for Main Pump

Main Pump

Hydraulic Coupling

BOILER FEED PUMP
NDE BEARING DE BEARING

SLEEVE KEY SOLE PLATE (BASE PLATE) FOUNDATION BOLT

18

Components of BFP
Booster Pump To Ensure a Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) for Main Feed Pump Saves a Costly Main Pump due to any damage from Cavitation. Typically a single-stage, centrifugal pump Recirculation : To maintain the Continuous flow of feed water when the valve to Economizer is Closed

Components of BFP
Suction Strainers To Protect Booster pump and main pump against Catastrophic failure due to entry of coarse particles Hydraulic Coupling Used to Transmit power from motor to pump as per the Load requirement

NPSH
NPSH is an acronym for Net Positive Suction Head. It shows the difference, in any cross section of a generic hydraulic circuit, between the pressure and the liquid vapor pressure in that section. NPSH is an important parameter, to be taken into account when designing a circuit : whenever the liquid pressure drops below the vapor pressure, liquid boiling occurs, and the final effect will be cavitations : vapor bubbles may reduce or stop liquid flow. In pump operation, two aspects of this parameter are called respectively NPSH (a) Net Positive Suction Head (available) and NPSH (r) Net Positive Suction Head (required), where NPSH(a) is computed at pump inlet port, and NPSH(r) is the limit NPSH the pump can withstand without cavitating.

NPSH
• Considering the circuit shown in the picture, in 1-1 NPSH is : • NPSH = P0 + H - Y - Vt • (to be solved with coherent measuring units), where Y is the friction loss between 0-0 and 1-1, and Vt the liquid vapour pressure at the actual temperature in section 1-1.

Booster Pump
 Major damage in BF pump is from cavitation or vapour bounding.  Provides positive pressure at the pump suction.

CONSTRUCTIONAL FEATURES OF BOILER FEED PUMP

DESIGN FEATURES OF BFP
 Horizontal, Multi Stage, Barrel Casing, Single Suction, Radial Flow.  High Efficiency.  Fully Cartridgised construction.  Stiff Shaft design.  Thermal shock capability. Hence no warm up.  Balance Brum and tilting pad Thrust Bearing for Axial thrust.  First Stage Impeller erosion life : 40,000 hrs (minimum)  Shaft sealing by Mechanical Seals.  Compatible materials for rotating and stationary parts.

BOILER FEED PUMP CARTRIDGE
BFP CARTRIDGE ASSEMBLY COMPRISES OF THE FOLLOWING SALIENT PARTS : • SHAFT • IMPELLERS • DIFFUSERS • RING SECTIONS • SUCTION GUIDE • DISCHARGE COVER • BEARING HOUSINGS • BEARING BRACKETS • JOURNAL BEARINGS • THRUST BEARING • MECHANICAL SEALS IN OTHER WORDS BFP CARTRIDGE IS A COMPLETE PUMP EXCEPTING BARREL (PUMP CASING).

ADVANTAGES
SPARE BFP CARTRIDGE OFFERS THE FOLLOWING ADVANTAGES IN CASE OF A BREAK DOWN OF RUNNING PUMP, SPARE CARTRIDGE CAN REPLACE IT TOTALLY. • DOWN TIME FOR CHANGE OVER WILL BE MINIMUM (ONE OR TWO SHIFTS) • SPARE CARTRIDGE RESTORES THE ORIGINAL EFFICIENCY OF THE PUMP

BFP BARREL & CARTRIDGE

BFP CARTRIDGE

BFP WITH COMMON FOUNDATION FRAME

BP ASSEMBLY WITH BASE FRAME

BOOSTER PUMP TUBING

BFP SEAL COOLER PIPING

COUPLING ASSEMBLY

MECHANICAL SEAL • The use of mechanical seal reduces the loses of feed water in the stuffing box to a minimum. • Working ability of the feed pump increases. • Cooling of stuffing box space should be perfect by the use of mechanical seal. • Cooling is carried out by the circulation of water between the stuffing box space and the cooler. Even after stopping the pump stuffing box cooling should be continued as its cooling circuit is different from the seal cooler. • Coolers are designed to keep the stuffing box space temperature below 800C.

MECHANICAL SEAL
It consists of two highly polished surfaces, one surface connected to the Shaft and the other to the stationary part of the Pump. • Both the surfaces are of dissimilar materials held in continuous contact by a spring. • These wearing surfaces are perpendicular to the axis of Shaft. • A thin film of working fluid between these faces provides cooling & lubrication.

SEAL HOUSING It houses the Mechanical Seal.

BEARINGS
• They support the Pump Rotor. • They keep the Shaft or Rotor in correct alignment with stationary parts under the action of radial and axial loads. • They are of two types : • Line Bearings • Thrust Bearings

Line Bearings
• • • • They give radial positioning to the rotor. They are of two types : Antifriction Bearings Sleeve Bearings

Thrust Bearings
They locate the rotor axially & take residual axial thrust. • They are fitted in the NDE Bearing Housing. • They have 8 white metal lined tilting pads held in a split Carrier Ring positioned on each side of the Thrust Collar.

BEARING HOUSINGS
• • They house Journal Bearing at the DE side and both Journal & Thrust Bearings at the NDE side. These are in the form of cylindrical castings split on the horizontal Shaft axis, located one each at DE & NDE sides of the Pump.

BEARING HOUSING ASSEMBLY

A DETAIL VIEW OF BEARING HOUSING ASSEMBLY

PUMP CASING
It houses the hydraulic components of Pumps. • It prevents the leakage and guides the liquid in a proper direction. • It is closed by Suction Guide at it’s suction side and Discharge Cover at it’s discharge side.

SUCTION GUIDE
• • It guides the fluid from suction pipe to the eye of the Impeller. It closes the drive end of Pump Casing and forms the suction annulus.

DISCHARGE COVER
It closes the NDE of Pump Casing and forms the balance chamber. • It is closed by NDE Water Jacket and Mechanical Seal Housing. • A Spring Disc is located between the last stage Diffuser and the Discharge Cover Balance Drum Bush.

IMPELLER
It rotates the mass of fluid with the peripheral speed of its vane tips, thereby determining the head developed or the Pump working pressure.

IMPELLER

DIFFUSER
• It converts Kinetic energy of the fluid into Pressure Energy.

RING-SECTION ASSEMBLY
It consists of Ring Sections located one to another. • Each Ring Section houses one Impeller and one Diffuser. • Ring Sections along with Diffusers form the passage of liquid from the Impeller outlet of one stage to the Impeller inlet of the next stage.

ROTATING ASSEMBLY
• • It consists of Shaft, Impellers, Balance Drum, Thrust Collar, rotating parts of Mechanical Seals and the Pump Half Coupling. It is dynamically balanced.

Balancing Device
• A small portion of the feed water in the order of about 10% which is not calculated to the guaranteed delivery capacity is taken off from the space behind the last impeller for the operation of the automatic balancing device to balance the hydraulic axial thrust of the pump rotor. The purpose of the balancing device is to take up thrust pressure in a similar way as the thrust bearing.

BALANCE DRUM

BALANCE DRUM
• The Balancing Chamber is connected either to the Pump suction or to the Deaerator, thus the back pressure in Balancing Chamber is slightly higher than the suction pressure. 95% of axial thrust is balanced by the Balancing Drum. Residual axial thrust is taken by Thrust Bearing. Provision of Thrust Bearing is recommended for varying condition of Head and Flow which affect the axial thrust.

• • •

Lubricating System • All the bearings of boiler feed pump, pump motor and hydraulic coupling, are force lubricated. • In addition to the lubrication oil is used in hydraulic coupling for the BFP scoop control also. • AOP supplies the forced oil for the lubrication as well as for the scoop control. • Working oil and lub oil coolers are used for cooling the oil.

CONSTRUCTIONAL FEATURES OF BOILER FEED BOOSTER PUMP

DESIGN FEATURES OF Booster Pump

♦ Horizontal, Single Stage, Double Suction, Axial Split Casing, Radial Flow. ♦ Double Suction Impeller for minimum NPSHR. ♦ Shaft sealing by Mechanical Seals. ♦ Compatible materials for stationary and rotating parts.

Turbine Driven Boiler Feed Pump
• The single cylinder turbine is of the axial flow type. The live steam flows through the emergency stop valve and then through the main Control Valves (5 nos. (Nozzle governing) These valves regulate the steam supply through the turbine in accordance with load requirements. • The journal bearings supporting the turbine shaft are arranged in the two bearing blocks. The front end-bearing block also houses the thrust bearing, which locates the turbine shaft and takes up "the axial forces.

TDBFP

TDBFP
• There are 14 stages of reaction blading. The balancing piston is provided at the Steam admission side to compensate the axial thrust to the maximum extent. Since the axial thrust varies with the load, the residual thrust is taken up the thrust bearing. The leak off from the balancing piston is connected back to the turbine after 9th stage. • The turbine is provided with hydraulic and electrohydraulic governing system. A primary oil pump is used as a speed sensor for hydraulic governing and Hall Probes are used as a speed sensor for electro hydraulic governing.

TDBFP
• Whenever steam is drawn from the cold reheat line or auxiliary supply, steam flow is controlled by auxiliary control valve. During this period the main control valves (4 nos.) will remain fully opened and the bypass valve across it will remain closed. (Bypass remains closed for a short period when changeover from IP steam to CRH takes place). • The steam exhaust from the BFP- Turbine is connected to the main condenser and the turbine glands are sealed by gland steam.

HP Heaters

HP Heaters • These are regenerative feed water heaters operating at high pressure and located by the side of turbine. These are generally vertical type and turbine bleed steam pipes are connected to them. • HP heaters are connected in series on feed waterside and by such arrangement, the feed water, after feed pump enters the HP heaters. The steam is supplied to these heaters form the bleed point of the turbine through motor operated valves. These heaters have a group bypass protection on the feed waterside.

Water side of HP Heaters

To FRS

From BFP Discharge

Group Bypass scheme
• In the event of tube rupture in any of the HPH and the level of the condensate rises to dangerous level which may harm the turbine blades, Group bypass protection device diverts automatically the feed water directly to boiler, thus bypassing all the HP heaters from feed water side as well as from steam side.

HP Heaters
• Feed water flows through the tube spirals and is heated by steam around the tubes in the shall of the heaters. • These heaters are cylindrical vessels with welded dished ends and with integrated, desuperheating, condensing and sub cooling sections. • The internal tube system of spirals is welded to the inlet and outlet headers. • Both feed water and steam entries and exits are from the bottom end of the heaters.

HP Heaters
• Following fittings are generally provided on the HP heaters : • Gauge glass for indicating the drain level. • Pressure gauge with three way cock. • Air Vent cock. • Safety valve shell side. • Seal pot. • Isolating valves. • High level alarm switch.

Heat Transfer Pattern in H P Heater

Temperature

Extraction Steam

Feed Water

Tube Surface
Drain Cooling Condensing Desuperheating

Operation of Unit With Heater out of Service
1. Increased Steam flow through remaining section of the turbine. 2. For Given Throttle flow Turbine output increases. 3. Turbine cycle Heat Input Increases because of low Feed Water temperature. 4. Turbine & Plant Heat rate are Poorer.

Feed Regulating Station

Feed Regulating Station • In order to ensure security of supply it has been considered necessary to provide a multiple feed-water regulating valve arrangement and on 200 MW units there is a 100% regulating valve. In addition there are two smaller regulating valves for low load conditions which can also be used for standby duty.

Feed Regulating Station

Lo

From HPH

Hi

Hi

Feed Regulating Station • The three-element feed-flow regulating system has been developed to meet the requirements of the modern boiler. The essential factors in obtaining the fine degree of regulation required are the steam flow from the boiler, the feed water flow to the boiler and the water level in the boiler drum.

Feed Regulating Station • To maintain the rate of feed-water input in correct ratio to the steam output under all conditions of loading, the system measures feed flow and steam-flow and the meter readings are balanced against each other by means of a differential linkage.

Drip/Drain system
• The bleed steam from the turbine does the work of reheating in the regenerative heaters and gets condensed. This condensation is termed as drip/ drain. Drip from the Heaters is further utilized for reheating. • HP heaters drip is cascaded from the HPH6 to HPH5 and then to deaerator. • LPH drip is cascaded from high pressure to low pressure heaters and ultimately to the condenser via condenser boxes.

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