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Generator Commissioning

- SUBODH KUMAR

GENERAL INSPECTION AND CHECKS


Ensure that erection work of the Generator and associated equipments are completed in all respect. Check that no part of Generator, Exciter, Bus-duct, CT, PT, Terminal Bushings, Marshalling Boxes, equipment is damaged.

Ensure safe and satisfactory access to the equipments.

Ensure fire protection system is adequate. Check that painting work is satisfactory.

Check that Name Plate Details are available, labeling and identification is permanent and satisfactory.
Check that permanent and adequate lighting arrangements are made.

Carefully examine the Generator Stator core, winding, Rotor body, slip-rings and all other associated equipment for any kind of abnormality, dents, or any physical damage. Ensure the quality certificate and factory inspection and test reports are available.

Ensure that all the RTDs installed are functioning properly.

TESTING OF GENERATOR
Laboratory

tests and Field tests to evaluate the insulation condition of stator windings of generator.

Laboratory tests

Laboratory tests have two functions: The first function is to evaluate the quality of coil manufacturing to ensure that your machine can achieve expected service lifetime. The second function is to examine any faults and defects of your stator coils to prevent catastrophic machine failures.

Field tests
Field tests provide diagnostic tests and condition assessment of machine insulation at your plant to help you to determine maintenance requirements to reduce maintenance cost.

Laboratory Diagnostic Tests of Stator Winding Insulation

Laboratory tests include:


Voltage Endurance test Thermal Cycling Dissection of Coils Insulation Failure Analysis Partial Discharge test Dissipation Factor Turn-to-Turn Multi-Factor Stress Forensic Analysis

voltage endurance test

A voltage endurance test is an accelerated insulation-aging test. The test is performed on stator bars or coils at much higher than normal operation stress levels within a short period of time to simulate insulation aging during machine operation. The test can predict the performance of the overall insulation system and measure the manufacturing quality. A number of diagnostic tests on stator insulation can be conducted before and after a voltage endurance test.

voltage endurance test

Manufacturers of stator insulation could change its design, type of materials, and the manufacturing process. The voltage endurance test can be done at the prototype and production stage to ensure the quality consistency during manufacturing. The test gives objective assessment of the quality of stator insulation. If coils fail the test, a remedial action may be taken by the manufacturer to improve the quality of coil manufacturing.

voltage endurance test

Voltage endurance tests can be applied to both new coils and spare coils to check the quality and performance of the insulation system. Spare coils have been stored for a long period of time and need to be tested to check their performance.

A set-up of the voltage endurance testing

Insulation failure during a voltage endurance test at 280 hours

Thermal Cycling Tests and Multi-Factor Tests

Large motors are exposed to frequent start/stop operations. Pumped-storage generators and hydro-generators have frequent load changes. All of those operations cause rapid heating and cooling, i.e. thermal cycling effect on stator insulation.

Thermal cycling can cause


1.

2.

3.

Loss of bond between copper and insulation; De-lamination and degradation of ground-wall insulation; Insulation failure.

A set-up of thermal cycling testing on stator windings

To assess the insulation performance under thermal cycling stress as the machine experiences in service, we perform thermal cycling tests on stator bars and coils according to IEEE Standard 1310 -1996 and IEC standards. The test insulation system is heated and cooled at a prescribed rate for a number of cycles (e.g. 500 cycles). A number of diagnostic tests on stator insulation can be performed during thermal cycling testing.

When a generator or motor is operating, a stator bar or coil is subject to electrical, mechanical, and thermal stresses simultaneously. Stator winding have to test under multifactor (electrical, mechanical, and thermal stresses) stress aging simultaneously to simulate normal service conditions or conditions as required.

Thermal cycling test result

Failure Analysis

When your stator coils or bars failed in service, you want to know what actually caused insulation failures to prevent future failures. You may need expert witness to prove the causes of insulation failures.

Failure Analysis

Dissections of a bar or coil can determine the quality of coil manufacturing and the causes of insulation failures. The failed coil or bar will be dissected and examined under a computer- controlled microscope. The root causes of insulation failures are investigated

Failure Analysis

The following chemical tests on the insulation system can be also conducted for insulation failure analysis: Resin content analysis; Thermo-gravimetric analysis; Thermo-mechanical analysis; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

Insulation failure of a 13.8 kV, 44 MW hydro-generator

PD activity caused the above insulation failure by dissection and microscopic examination

Partial Discharge Measurements

Partial discharge (PD), corona inception measurements provide a non-intrusive indication of the void content and other problems, which may be present in a stator bar or a coil. Partial discharge measurements can identify insulation defects which could be caused by improper impregnation, inadequate resin, voids, or poor consolidation of the insulation. These measurements are normally undertaken at the rated phase-to-ground voltage. PD specialists can assess insulation condition based on PD test data.

Generator insulation damage due to partial discharge activity

FIELD TEST

TEST PROCEDURE 1. Generator is disconnected from the bus duct. Ground all the RTD wires coming from the Generator. Carry out the IR test on the Each Phase to Ground separately. (note
Insulation Tester used and Ambient temp. in deg C.):

2.
3.

This test is performed injecting a stabilized high DC voltage and measuring the current after 15 seconds to calculate Insulation Resistance (IR). We can perform this test between phases or between the 3 phases and the ground. IR highly depends on temperature and must be corrected. It also depends on the winding class and on the curing state of the machine. IR should be above a minimum value related with the rated voltage of the generator. The Polarization Index (PI) is the ratio between IR after 10 and after 1. As a ratio, it is almost no temperature dependant. The results indicate insulation contamination, moisture, cracks or fissures in the insulation. Standards indicate that this test should be carried out before more aggressive tests like Hipot or Surge tests.

D.C. winding resistance:


Carry out the D.C. winding resistance

test of the Stator Winding (each


phase separately)

Winding Resistance (DC) [m]- The test injects a current and measures the terminal voltage in eachphase. The result is the pure resistance of each phase and must be temperature corrected. The resistance per phase should be very similar between them. It gives an indication of the integrity of the windings and the connections, indicating shorted turns, loose connections, wrong connections and open circuits.

Visual Inspection test Digital ELCID PD Data Interpretation and Analysis Corona Probe TEST Dissipation Factor (tan delta test) AC and DC Hi-pot test Wedge Tightness test Core repair, if loose Insulation Condition Assessment

FEILD TEST INCLUDE:

EL CID Test

Electromagnetic Core Imperfection Detection (EL CID) is used to check the integrity of inter-laminar insulation for stator cores of generators. A fault current occurring within the laminated stator core results in a hot spot and can cause a catastrophic failure of a generator and motor in service.

An EL CID test can

detect faults and defects in the stator core; check effectiveness of core repairs; test the stator core before and after a stator rewind to check any damages caused by rewind; check the quality of a new stator core; trend the stator core condition.

EL CID testing on 80 MW hydrogenerator

EL CID testing on a Turbo-generator

ADVANTAGE OF ELCID TEST


In comparison with a traditional loop (ring flux) test, an EL CID test offers the following benefits: Uses a portable excitation transformer instead of a large excitation transformer in a loop test to considerably reduce test cost; Saves 30% of test time and labor cost of a loop test. Conducts low power testing (EL CID uses only 4% of the rated magnetic flux) to avoid further damage to fault areas;

Does not have safety concerns to

test personnel; Records test data by a computer for trending of test results. Provides an easy and in-expensive test method to check the quality of a core repair or a re-wedging operation.

EL

CID testing requires good knowledge of the EL CID instrument and stator cores to give a reliable test result.

On-line/off-line PD tests and PD data analysis;

Partial discharge (PD) testing is a recognized tool to diagnose stator insulation deterioration and the other related problems. The tests can be performed under the online condition (when a machine is running) or the off-line condition (when a machine is stand still). On-line PD testing can give early warning of potential machine failures and provide machine condition information for predictive maintenance.

WHAT IS PARTIAL DISCHARGE

PD is a localized electrical discharge ( spark) in an electrical system that does not completely bridge the electrode. Partial discharge (PD) corresponds to ionization of gas around or within solid insulation.

This phenomena only occurs at higher AC voltage (specially > 3KV). Higher the voltage, the more destructive the activity. PD is a leading indicator of insulation breakdown.

OFF-LINE PD MEASUREMENT

OFF LINE PD TESTING LIMITATION


Testing

does not observe load changes Testing does not occur at operating voltage. Equipment will not be at rated temperature.

ONLINE PD MEASUREMENT

The HV couplers are connected to the machine terminals to detect partial discharges from the stator winding. A computer-controlled instrument measures PD signals detected by the HV couplers. PD specialist then analyzes the test data to provide an insulation diagnostics report .

TYPES OF PD SENSOR

3 Types of PD sensors are used -Coupling Capacitor RFCT ( Radio frequency current T/F) Stator slot couplers These sensors are installed during manufacturing stage.

RFCT

Coupling Capacitor

The nature, type, region, and severity of PD activity can be identified as follows through data analysis: Slot discharge De-laminations Internal partial discharge from voids Grading paint discharge Loose windings End winding discharge

PD - Corona

PD - tracking

PD- slot Discharge

EFECT OF PD
Rise to ozone Nascent oxygen (strong oxidizing agent) Power loss Intense heat in the discharge channel

PD ANALYSIS
Magnitude Number density Polarity Phase angle of occurrence Quadratic rate

WEDGE TIGHTNESS TEST


This test is done to check the tightness of slot wedges of stator winding. Looseness of wedge due to shrinkage of slot packing material. High mechanical stress vibration

Corona probe measurements

Corona probe testing can pinpoint partial discharge location in each slot. It supplements on- line/off-line partial discharge tests by precisely locating partial discharge to a particular coil or a spot. The corona probe can also be used as a testing tool to measure levels of PD activity. Corona probe testing can be performed either with the rotor in or out of the machine.

it is normally a requirement that the rotors are removed from the stators so that the electromagnetic probe can be inserted into the stator frame. The stator winding is energized at various voltages up to phase voltage. The probe is moved along each individual slot and the levels of discharge current are recorded from the peak milli ammeter.

Corona probe testing to pinpoint the exact location of partial discharge activity

HI POT (DC Leakage current measurement)

This test applies to the insulation a voltage for 1 minute above nominal values. Maintenance test voltage is less than the factory test voltage. The result is generally pass or fail. This test will insure that the machine will support extraordinary service conditions but because of its aggressiveness, its usually not carried out as a predictive maintenance tool.

HI POT (DC Leakage current measurement)

Vdc= 1.6 x (AC test voltage) or 1.5 Vph

TAN DELTA (dissipation factor) TEST

Dissipation factor (Tan-Delta) is one of the most powerful off-line nondestructive diagnostic tool to monitor the condition of solid insulation of various high voltage equipment.
By measuring the electrical properties such as capacitance and Tan-Delta regularly on periodical basis, it is possible to ensure the operational unexpected breakdown.

WHAT IS TAN DELTA

It represents Di- electric losses concept of the insulating material.

HV

ELECTRODES

INSULATION
LV

Perfect Insulation between the two electrodes will act as a perfect capacitor.
I

Cp

Tan = Ir/Ic

= loss angle = phase angle Max allowable Tan = 0.03 For new machine

Ic

Ir

Tan delta measurement procedure

Suitable KVA rating transformer Equipment should be disconnected Kit to be grounded and test voltage is raised in steps up to rated phase voltage.

Measurement Analysis:

Change in above quantities with machine age. Statically variation of the quantities of the similar machine.

CORE LOOSENESS & REPAIR

TESTING ON ROTOR

RSO TEST AIR PURGE TEST INSULATION RESISTANCE TEST WINDING RESISTANCE IMPEDENCE TEST CC BOLT AIR TIGHTNESS TEST DPT & UT OF RETAINING RING

RSO TEST

RSO test is performed to detect faults in rotor winding. Electrical faults in the rotor fall into two main categories:

Fault from the winding to the rotor body ( Earth fault) Fault between parts of the windings ( Inter turn winding faults)

RSO TEST (SIMULATE EARTH FAULT ) ON GENERATOR ROTOR UNIT 9

RSO TEST(SIMULATE INTERTURN FAULT ) IN GENERATOR ROTOR UNIT 9

ROTOR AIR PURGE TEST

DPT/UT of retaining ring


These

test are performed to check the internal cracks of the retaining ring.

CC Bolt Air Tightness test

THANK YOU