Quality Circle Forum of India

presents

Problem Solving Techniques
- a simplified revised practical guide

What is Graph?
Graph is a pictorial representation of data which, when presented, is easily understandable. It helps to represent large amount of information comprehensively but in a compact manner.

You know we had such a wonderful world tour. We went to India, Hawaii, Canada, Europe
……………….

We see a person telling his friend about the wonderful world tour he had.

It is said that a picture is worth a thousand words.

So why not show the friend some photographs he took on his trip.

A beach in Hawaii

Taj Mahal in India

Sydney in Australia

Mount Alps in Switzerland

The leaning tower of Pisa

As Graphs are pictorial representation of data, they make it easy for anybody to understand the information. i.e. from top management to grass root level employees.

We can see different types of graphs

Foundry Rejections (%)

25 20 15 10 5 0

in shop floor

Months

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

Sales Up

In offices

In Newspapers

In Magazine and Journals etc.

IT IS THEREFORE NECESSARY TO LEARN ABOUT THEM.

• What are they? • When are they to be used? • What interpretation is to be made from them?

William Playfair (1759-1853)

T.H. Lambert (1728-1777)

are regarded as the originators of modern graphic methods

Florence Nightingale (1820-1910)

Pioneer of modern nursing also used charting techniques to improve quality of medical care

Graphs are generally used

100 50 0 1st Qtr 2nd Qtr 3rd Qtr 4th Qtr

North West East

For explanation to others

Graphs are generally used
Engineers/ Quality Circle Facilitators etc., and QC leaders can explain the phenomena in the shop and make people understand better. It can be used to explain defect ratio, productivity, increase in turnover etc.

Graphs are generally used
BUDGET PROPOSAL

For recording data

Graphs are generally used

Sales up ( March 1996)

Sales down ( September 1996)

For understanding
Past and present situation / position

Graphs are generally used
Plotting the data in the order of day or time will often reveal trends or abnormality when corrective action has to be taken. Even for production planning and control, graphs are handy.

Graphs are generally used
I got to have a look at Worker I
40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Worker A Worker B Worker C Worker D Worker E Worker F Worker G Worker H Worker I Worker J

For data analysis

No. of defective parts

Graphs are generally used

Graphs show what figures mean and clarify the facts that may be over looked otherwise, if the data are seen as just figures.

TYPES OF GRAPHS
Commonly used graphs

1. 2. 3. 4.

Line graph. Bar chart / graph. Pie chart or Circle graph. Pictorial graph.

TYPES OF GRAPHS
Special purpose graphs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Belt graph. Radar chart. Compound graphs - bar and line. Strata graph. Float graph. Zee graph. Pyramid graph.

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1st Qtr

Line graph
2nd Qtr 3rd Qtr 4th Qtr

East West North

This is used for observing quantity changes over time.

How are they made?
12 10 8

%6
4 2 0 23 24 25 26 27 28 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

%

FOUNDRY REJECTIONS (FEB-MAR 1997)

In these graphs, the abscissa (x axis) shows time and the ordinate (y axis) shows quantity. Such graphs are commonly used for watching production, sales, inventory, absenteeism, rejection, rework, in warranty returns etc.

Where to use Line Graph
50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

Rs

Share price movements of SEPTA Inds. during the month of Sep-Oct 1998

16

20

24

28

10

14

Sep - Oct 1998

Used when you require an interval scale.

18

2

6

50 45 40 35 30 25 Rs 20 15 10 5 0 16 19 22 25 28 1 4 7 10 13 16 19

Share price movements of SEPTA Inds. & LIBRA inds. during the month of Sep-Oct 1998

Sep - Oct 1998

To display comparison of two different series.

SALES

Used when data defines more meaningful patterns.

Please ensure that graphs do not misrepresent the data.

Defective parts returned for claim.
1.4 1.2

Loss in Crores.

1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 84 88 92 93 94 95 96

Look at this graph. This shows a gradual reduction. This is wrong. First three figures are of four years interval but later on it is shown at yearly interval.

Defective parts returned for claim.
1.4

Loss in Crores

1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 84 88 92 96

Look at this graph which is made in the right way all having four years interval. Here you can see the trend as a big reduction.

Sales of the Septa Fast Food Joints in the month of July 1996
250

Lakhs (Rs.)

200 150 100 50 0 Sales

Pune Nagpur Chennai Calcutta Mumbai

This is used for comparison. It can be vertical.

Sales of the Septa Fast Food Joints in the month of July 1996

Sales

Mumbai Calcutta Chennai Nagpur Pune

0

50

100

150

200

250

Lakhs (Rs.)

Or it can be horizontal

w Foundry Rejections (%)
25

w
20 15 10 5

0

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

Month

In this graph each bar is of the same width

Interval between the bars
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

X<W
25
X= Distance between bars

20 15 10 5 0
X

W= Width of bar

w

It should be equal between the bars. Distance between bars can be equal to width of the bar or smaller than that.

In case of time, place, or order, the arrangement is in sequence. Let us see them one by one.

25
20 15 10 5 0

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

Foundry Rejections (%)

TIME

Sales of the Septa Fast Food Joints in the month of July 1996 250
200

150

100

Pune Nagpur Chennai Calcutta Mumbai Jaipur Kanpur

Rs. in Lakhs

50

0

Sales

PLACE

No. of defective parts

40 35

30 25
20 15

10
5 0

Worker A Worker B Worker C Worker D Worker E Worker F Worker G Worker H Worker I Worker J

ORDER

Policemen killed in action during the last decade.
2500 2000 J&K Punjab Assam Bihar Maharashtra Gujarat A.P. Orrisa W.Bengal M.P.

Number

1500 1000 500 0

In other cases bars can be arranged in descending order.

90 80 70

Sales (000)

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1st Qtr 2nd Qtr 3rd Qtr 4th Qtr

East West North

Base line: The bottom line of the bars on the x axis is always straight and its scale starts at zero.

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Sales (000)

East West North

1st Qtr

2nd Qtr

3rd Qtr

Scale line: This is vertical for vertical bars

3rd Qtr

2nd Qtr

North West East

1st Qtr 0 50 100

Sales (000)

Horizontal for horizontal bars

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
1st Qtr 2nd Qtr 3rd Qtr

Sales (000)

East West North

Scale figures: Written on the left outside for vertical bars

3rd Qtr North West East

2nd Qtr

1st Qtr 0 50 100

Sales (000)

Written below at the outside edge for horizontal bars

Use horizontal bars when labels are too big to fit under vertical display.

12 seats

186 seats
BJP & allies UF Congress Others Other UF supporters

22 seats

139 seats

181 seats

Strength of parties in Lok Sabha 1996 (Total seats = 540)

This is used for showing relative proportion of various components.

Steps for construction are:
1) Draw a circle with a diameter of 2"

2) Collect the data.
Example : Let us have a look at the break up of the ministers in the Deve Gowda Government Caste/Community wise

Total number of ministers : 21
OBC - 10 Yadav - 3 Muslim - 3 Upper caste - 2 SC - 2 Sikh - 1

3) Calculate the ratio of each component or item in the data to the total
Caste - Ratio

OBC - 10/21
Yadav - 1/7

Muslim - 1/7
Upper Caste - 2/21

SC - 2/21
Sikh - 1/21

4) Multiply this ratio by 360 degrees
OBC - 10/21 X 360= 171.4 degrees Yadav - 1/7 X 360= 51.4 degrees

Muslim - 1/7 X 360= 51.4 degrees
Upper Caste - 2/21 X 360= 34.3 degrees SC - 2/21 X 360= 34.3 degrees

Sikh - 1/21 X 360= 17.14 degrees

5) Draw a line from any point on the circumference to the centre of the circle

Members of the union cabinet split caste/community wise
OBC Yadav Muslim Upper Caste SC Sikh

6) Draw each segment in clockwise order. Usually segments are placed in a descending order and ‘Misc.’ is shown at the end

When to use a PIE CHART?
12 seats 22 seats 186 seats
BJP & allies UF Congress Others Other UF supporters

139 seats

181 seats

Strength of parties in Lok Sabha 1996 (Total seats = 540)

Use a pie chart to convey approximate relative proportion

181 seats
BJP & allies UF Congress Others Other UF supporters

139 seats

22 seats

186 seats
12 seats

Strength of parties in Lok Sabha 1996 (Total seats = 540)

Use an exploded pie to emphasize a small portion of the parts

Look at the population growth in India
1941

1951
1961

1971

1981

1991

Each symbol represents 25 million

Nowadays this is very effectively used by newspapers. Here the picture itself is used to indicate the quantity.

ONION PRICE
50 40 30

Rs.
20 10

95

96

97

98

The advantage of pictorial graph is that the symbols which are placed at uniform intervals vitally contribute to the communication process and can be easily understood by laymen.

Sales of Septa Super Markets in Different Zones during the four Quarters of the year 1998
180

Rs in lakhs

160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 1st Qtr 2nd Qtr 3rd Qtr 4th Qtr North West East

It is like a Pie chart but using bars and is suitable for showing comparative levels.

UNIVERSITY OF POONA ( Final Year B.E. results of affiliated colleges. )

100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0%
C.O.E.P. M.I.T. B.V.P.

Distinction 1st Class 2nd Class Pass Class Failures

It can be made on a percentage basis

UNIVERSITY OF POONA ( Final Year B.E. results of affiliated colleges. )

400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 C.O.E.P. M.I.T. B.V.P. Distinction 1st Class 2nd Class Pass Class Failures

As well as on quantitative basis

180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 1st Qtr 2nd Qtr 3rd Qtr 4th Qtr North West East

It can be made as vertical bars

4th Qtr

3rd Qtr

2nd Qtr

East West North

1st Qtr

0

50

100

150

200

or can be made as horizontal bars

How to make it?
Collect the data.
UNIVERSITY OF POONA ( Final Year B.E. results of affiliated colleges. )

College

Failures

Pass class

2nd class

1st Class

Distinction

C.O.E.P.

22

55

156

99

11

M.I.T

45

77

131

41

6

B.V.P.

60

98

122

29

3

350
300 250 200 150 100 50

0
C.O.E.P. M.I.T. B.V.P.

Procedure is something similar to making a bar graph. Only difference is each bar represents multiple information. Divide the bar as per the details.

UNIVERSITY OF POONA ( Final Year B.E. results of affiliated colleges. )

400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 C.O.E.P. M.I.T. B.V.P. Distinction 1st Class 2nd Class Pass Class Failures

Identity each category distinctly.

It is gaining popularity among Quality Circles

Cause & effect diagram Stratification 100 80 60

After Training

Pareto chart

40 20 Scatter Diagram Check sheet

Before Training
Control chart Histogram Graphs

How to make it?

Example:

An organisation wants to improve the knowledge of QC circles on eight Problem Solving Techniques .First measurement is to be made in respect of each of the eight techniques. For this, draw a circle and divide it into eight parts by drawing eight axis as shown in the figure.

Calculate the angle of each axis 360 degrees = 45 degrees 8 All axis must be of equal angle Each axis is 45 degrees from the other

Draw the eight axis and title them on the vertical axis ( i.e. at 90 degrees to the horizontal diameter).

Calibrate from 0 to 100, with 0 at centre of the circle and 100 at the centre most circle. Draw concentric circles passing through the calibrated points.
100 80 60 40

20
0

Write the title on the circumference.
100 Cause & effect diagram Stratification

80
60 40 20 0

Pareto chart

Scatter Diagram

Check sheet

Control chart

Graphs

Histogram

Mark the present knowledge level of each technique based on a test. Show it in the graph.
Cause & effect diagram Stratification Pareto chart

Scatter Diagram

Check sheet

Control chart Histogram

Graphs

At the end of the Training programme, evaluate the knowledge level & mark it on the graph in a different colour.
Cause & effect diagram

Stratification
Pareto chart

Scatter Diagram

Check sheet

Control chart Histogram

Graphs

Cause & effect diagram Stratification 100 80 60

After training

Pareto chart

40 Scatter Diagram 20 Check sheet

Before training
Control chart Histogram Graphs

This graph shows original level of knowledge, shaded portion indicates knowledge gained through this programme & the outer portion shows knowledge to be gained.

+

50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1st Qtr

Line Graph + Bar Graph = COMPOUND GRAPH

A Compound graph is a combination of bar and line graph.

Let us find out how to make a Compound Graph with the help of an example

A ceiling fan manufacturing industry wants to improve its quality by reducing the number of defective fans. Out of 1000 fans inspected in one week a total of 150 were found defective. The inspection report is as follows.

THE EXAMPLE

TYPE OF DEFECT

NUMBER OF FANS

A. Motor winding B. Bends in wings C. Cracks on central rod D. Capacitor E. Scratches F. Regulator G. Bend in screws H. Others Total

20 15 14 10 12 40 25 14 150

In order to make a Compound Graph the data available has to be rearranged according to the order of importance i.e. factor or defect which contributed to the maximum problem.

Here it is Regulator 40 Nos, followed by next highest i.e. Bend in screws 25 Nos. In this way arrange all the information except for 'others' which is cumulative of so many defects but individually small in number.

To prioritize rearrange the data table
TYPE OF DEFECT NUMBER OF DEFECTS

F. G. A. B. C. E. D. H.

Regulator Bend in screws Motor winding Bends in wings Cracks on central rod Scratches Capacitor Others Total

40 25 20 15 14 12 10 14 150

Next step is to calculate the "percentage of each to total" and "cumulative percentage to total" for each type of defect.

The percentage of "Regulator" to total

= (40/150)*100 =

27%

And the percentage of "Bend In Screws" to total = (25/150)*100 = 17%

Similarly, calculate the percentage to total for all the other types of defects.

Now arrange them in a table showing, a) b) c) d) e) Type of defect. Number or quantum of defect. Cumulative. Percentage. Cumulative percentage.

TYPE OF DEFECT

NUMBER OF FANS

CUM

%TO TOL

CUM %

F. G. A. B. C. E. D. H.

Regulator Bend in Screws Motor winding Bend in wings Cracks in Central rod Scratches Capacitor Others Total

40 25 20 15 14 12 10 14

40 65 85 100 114 126 136 150

27% 17% 13% 10% 9% 8% 7% 9% 100%

27% 44% 57% 67% 76% 84% 91% 100%

150

150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

100
90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Quantity (Nos)

%

Now let us make the Compound Graph. Draw a vertical axis on both sides and mark number on left and % on right. Draw horizontal axis and divide it into No. of intervals equivalent to types of defects

100

150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

90
80 70 60

Quantity (Nos)

50
40 30 20 10 0

%

Type of defect

Construct a Bar Diagram to represent the data as per tally sheet

F G A B C E D H

150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

136 126 114 100 85 65

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20

Quantity (Nos)

%

10
0

Type of defect

Draw cumulative curve (Pareto Curve). Mark the cumulative value (or percentage) and connect the points by a line.

F G A B C E D H

150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Quantity (Nos)

136 126 114 100 85 65

100
90 80 70

60
50 40 30

%

20
10 0

Defects

Write all the necessary information concerning the diagram.

QUALITY COSTS (% OF SALES)
8 7 6 5

Failure

%

4
3 2 1 0

Appraisal
Preventive
87 88 89 90 91 92 93

This is used to show the trend in the total and components of the total.

How to make it?

Arrange the multiple data in a descending order and find out the cumulative value.

QUALITY COSTS (% OF SALES)
8 7 6 5 4

3
2 1 0

87

88

89

90

91

92

93

Mark the quantity or value on the 'Y' axis and time scale on the 'X' axis.

QUALITY COSTS (% OF SALES)
8 7

6
5 4

3
2 1 0

87

88

89

90

91

92

93

Mark the first component level for each year.

QUALITY COSTS (% OF SALES)
8
7 6

5
4 3

2
1 0

87

88

89

90

91

92

93

Then mark the second and third component (cumulative value) for each year

QUALITY COSTS (% OF SALES)
8 7 6

5
4 3 2 1 0

87

88

89

90

91

92

93

This way complete the marking and connect each point by a line graph.

QUALITY COSTS (% OF SALES)
8 7 6 5

Failure

%

4

3
2 1

Appraisal Preventive
87 88 89 90 91 92 93

0

Shade each data distinctly for easy comparison.

MARG OPINION POLL ON P.M..
100 80

68%
MATURE

78% 46%
INDECISI VE WISE

60
40 20 0 20 40 60 80 100

36%
PRO HINDU

34%
PRO MUSLIM

28%
WEAK

NO

NO

NO

32%

NO

22%

54% 64% 66%

72%

This is an ideal graph for comparison of two distinct aspects.

STRONG

NO

This helps to find out the total problem in relation to the entire aspect.

MARG OPINION POLL ON P.M..
100
80 60 40 20 0 20
NO

68%
MATURE

78% 46%
WISE

36%
PRO HINDU

34%
PRO MUSLIM

INDECISIVE

28%
WEAK

NO

NO

40
60 80

32%

NO

22%

54% 64% 66%

72%

100

It shows the whole picture at one glance. This is a simple graph to draw.

STRONG

NO

This graph has three values. Monthly, cumulative and comparison with last twelve months. This is an ideal graph to find out the result of a particular month, what is the trend and cumulative value.

How to draw it? We need the values for each month, cumulative and cumulative for previous 12 months

Plot them in a graph
a) First monthly value
800 700 600

SALES ( ‘000)

500
400 300 200 100

MONTHLY J F M A M J J A S O N D

Then cumulative value
800
700 600

SALES ( ‘000)

500
400 300 200 100

MONTHLY J F M A M J J A S O N D

Last twelve months cumulative value for each month. Eg. For January take values from previous February to current January and for February from previous March to current February and so on.
SALES ( ‘000)
800

LAST 12 MONTHS CUMULATIVE

700
600 500 400 300 200 100

MONTHLY
J F M A M J J A S O N D

This uses horizontal bar. It is very simple to draw. Use it to show contrasting trends between levels of an independent variable.

POPULATION IN 1991 IN A FEW STATES
MALE
H.P. PUNJAB ORRISA RAJASTHAN T. NADU W. BENGAL
45000 20000 25000
40000 35000 30000 25000 15000 10000 5000 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 30000 35000 40000 45000

FEMALE

(In thousands)

Use it for displaying more than two independent variables and when comparison between individual pair of values is very important

BENEFITS OF GRAPH
Numerical data are expressed in visual form
Members of the union cabinet split caste/community wise
Total number of ministers : 21

OBC Yadav Muslim Upper caste SC Sikh

- 10 - 3 - 3 - 2 - 2 - 1

OBC Yadav Muslim Upper Caste SC Sikh

Helps in comparison
50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0
16 20 24 28 10 14

Rs

Share price movements of SEPTA Inds. & LIBRA inds. during the month of Sep-Oct 1995
18 2 6

Sep - Oct 1995

Easy to understand
STOCK MARKET Sensitive Index

No strain of going through large volume of data & records

Creates interest
SEPTA Business School

Corporate salaries soars

Isn't that great !!!

Quick to understand
We are doomed !!!

Useful to express data clearly & strikingly

No need to have special skill to make them
Even I can draw a graph !!

Helps in accurate analysis of causes
Now I know exactly what went wrong !!
Assembly Line
40 35 A B C D E F G H I J

% of Defects

30 25 20 15 10 5 0

SOME DO’S AND DON’TS FOR DRAWING GRAPHS
a) b) c) d) e) f) Be clear on purpose of making a graph. Arrange the information in order. Decide on the type of graph. Decide on the title. Show the data. Substance is more important than method. Good graphs are those which draw attention to data.

SOME DO’S AND DON’TS FOR DRAWING GRAPHS g) Avoid distorting the information.

h)
i) j) k)

Make it easier for eyes to compare.
Large amount of data should be depicted in summary form and then into finer details. Let graph serve a clear purpose of exploration, tabulation or decoration. Should be closely integrated with statistical and verbal descriptions of a data set.

SUMMARY
Graphs are the best way to present large amount of data in cohesive manner. There are four types of graphs (line, bar, pie and pictorial). Many combination graphs can be made with them.

If you know the basis guide lines which includes consistency and simplicity, we can make them easily. Graphs should represent truth, be informative and be clear.

Prepared by G. Vijaykumar

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