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Diesel Engines

Learning Objectives
Understand the various terms related to diesel engines Differentiate between a crosshead engines and trunk piston engine Explain working principle of 2-stroke and 4-stroke engines State advantages and disadvantages of slow speed diesel engine Explain meaning of scavenging and supercharging Explain Diesel Engine ancillary system

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Marine Diesel Engines

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Introduction
Internal Combustion (I.C.) Engines are Diesel Engines Petrol Engines Jet Engines Gas turbines In I.C. Engine combustion takes place inside the engine as compared to steam engines and steam turbines where combustion takes place out side the engine i.e. in boilers (known as External Combustion Engine)
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Marine Diesel Engines
Are one type of I.C. Engines which use D.O. or F.O. Classified as Compression Ignition (C.I.)engines where fuel oil is ignited inside the engine cylinder by heat of compression of air Unlike petrol engine where fuel is ignited by electric spark Application of Diesel Engines on Ship: Main Engine Aux Engine Lifeboat Engine Emergency Generator Emergency Compressor
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Popularity of Diesel Propulsion Plant Use of cheaper grade of fuel Higher plant efficiency (beyond 50% ) with improved waste heat recovery unit 40% less fuel consumption than steam plant Less complex than steam plant Higher reliability & better manoeuvre ability Less maintenance cost 26/05/12 Marine Diesel Engines 4 .

Classification of Marine Diesel Engines Piston action Single acting Double acting Engine speed Slow speed engine (55 to 150 rpm) Medium speed engine (300 to 850 rpm) High speed engine (850 to 3000 rpm) Piston connection Trunk piston type engine Crosshead type engine Cylinder arrangement Inline arrangement Vee arrangement 26/05/12 Marine Diesel Engines 5 .

Essential Terminology TDC BDC Bore Stroke Swept volume Clearance volume Compression ratio 26/05/12 Marine Diesel Engines 6 .

Stroke is determined by the length of the crank. Swept Volume is the product of 'Piston Area' and 'Stroke'. 26/05/12 Marine Diesel Engines 7 .Essential Terminology Stroke of a Piston This is the distance traveled by the piston from the TDC (Top Dead Centre) to BDC (Bottom Dead Centre) or vice versa. Swept Volume This is the volume swept by the piston during one stroke.

The clearance volume space forms the Combustion Chamber. Compression Ratio This is the ratio obtained by dividing the 'Volume at BDC' by the 'Volume at TDC' (Clearance Volume). swept volume + clearance volume Compression Ratio =        clearance volume 26/05/12 Marine Diesel Engines 8 . Main propulsion engines on board ships. which burn poor quality heavy fuel oil have Compression Ratio around 14.Essential Terminology Clearance Volume This is the volume on top of the cylinder when the piston is at TDC. It is difficult to start an engine if the Compression ratio is less than 12.

Trunk Piston Type Engines Piston is connected directly to the upper end of the connecting rod by the gudgeon pin & bearings Lower end of connecting rod is connected to the crankshaft with bearings 26/05/12 Marine Diesel Engines 9 .

Crosshead Type Engines Piston is fastened to vertical piston rod Lower end of piston is attached to crosshead assembly X-head assembly slides up & down in guides X-head assembly is connected to crankshaft by connecting rod with bearings 26/05/12 Marine Diesel Engines 10 .

cycles – 2 stroke & 4 stroke cycles 26/05/12 Marine Diesel Engines 11 .Engine Cycles A cycle is a full series of separate steps or events essential for efficient engine operation. These steps or events are Suction of air Compression of air Injection of fuel Expansion of gases Exhausting of gases There are two types of D.E.

Two-stroke Cycle Slow speed engines operate on 2-stroke cycle principle In two-stroke engine. one working cycle occurs for every one revolution of the engine crankshaft Every down stroke of piston is a power stroke Every upward stroke is a compression stroke Exhaust of burnt gases & fresh charge of air is taken during the late period of downward stroke and early period of upward stroke 26/05/12 Marine Diesel Engines 12 .

Two Stroke Cycle 26/05/12 Marine Diesel Engines 13 .

Crosshead type 2stroke diesel engine working principle Fresh air Rotary air compressor Exhaust gas Gas turbine Air cooler PV diagram 26/05/12 Marine Diesel Engines 14 .

2Stroke Engine Design Features •100 RPM •Upto 12 cylinders •Large power output per cylinder (3MW) •Uniflow scavenging 26/05/12 Marine Diesel Engines 15 .

Controllable Pitch Propeller. Direct Reversal. which cause propeller to turn in opposite direction Methods of producing reverse thrust from propeller 26/05/12 Marine Diesel Engines 16 . • Slow speed & medium speed 1. Reverse gear and clutches. so that propeller turns in astern direction.1. A diesel electric system in which the propeller is driven by a reversible electric motor 3. which changes the angle of blades while the propeller shaft turns in same direction 2.

e 2 revolutions of crankshaft to complete one working cycle of operation 26/05/12 Marine Diesel Engines 17 .Four-stroke Cycle Medium speed and high speed engines are generally operate on 4-stroke cycle principle It takes four strokes of the piston i.

Four Stroke Cycle 26/05/12 Marine Diesel Engines 18 .

Trunk piston 4 stroke diesel engine working principle Fresh air Rotary air compressor Air cooler Inlet valve Exhaust valve Exhaust gas Gas Turbine PV diagram Fly wheel 26/05/12 Marine Diesel Engines Timing diagram 19 .

4 Stroke Engine Design Features 26/05/12 Marine Diesel Engines 20 .

Energy Distribution 26/05/12 Marine Diesel Engines 21 .

Engine Systems •Lubricating •Cooling •Air for combustion •Fuel •Air for starting 26/05/12 Marine Diesel Engines 22 .

Lubricating System 26/05/12 Marine Diesel Engines 23 .

Cooling System 26/05/12 Marine Diesel Engines 24 .

Air for Combustion 26/05/12 Marine Diesel Engines 25 .

Fuel System 26/05/12 Marine Diesel Engines 26 .

Air for starting 26/05/12 Marine Diesel Engines 27 .

26/05/12 Marine Diesel Engines 28 .Medium Speed Engine for propulsion Typically 4 stroke engine RPM 300 to 600 RPM Requires Gear box.

It is possible for contaminants to reach crankcase Medium Speed Engine 1 2 26/05/12 Marine Diesel Engines 29 . Piston absorbs side thrust generated by the angle of connecting rod 2.Demerits: 1.

Redundancy. useful for ferries etc.Merits: 1. 2. If one engine fails Medium Speed Engine 26/05/12 Marine Diesel Engines 30 . Smaller engine room.

This speed is higher than optimum propeller speed of about 70 RPM In order to improve the overall performance of energy conversion system. 26/05/12 Marine Diesel Engines 31 .Need for a Reduction gear The optimum rotational speed of a medium speed engine is 300 to 600 RPM. reduction gears are fitted to enable each component to work efficiently.

Summary Terminology 2 stroke engine 4 stroke engine Comparison between 2 stroke & 4 stroke Engine ancillary systems 26/05/12 Marine Diesel Engines 32 .