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. substances.ENVIRONMENT Environment is the sum total of all external factors. living beings and conditions that surround an organism and influence the same without becoming its part.

What happens when we add our waste to the environment Wastes are useless leftover or discarded materials. These are divided into two .

polythene . made. For example: garbage. These wastes are These wastes are not degraded by degraded by microorganisms. These do not accumulate These pile up and in nature. Non Biodegradable Wastes . livestock wastes. For Example: plastics .Biodegradable Wastes These are biological in These are commonly man origin. microorganisms. glass . accumulate in nature. nickel. sewage. and undergo biomagnifications. These wastes do not show These enter food chains biomagnifications.

an be natural or artificial. a self contained ecological system which consist biotic community and the physical environment . ural and functional unit of biosphere.ECOSYSTEM AND ITS COMPONENTS. both i ging materials between them. em is the largest man made ecosystem. another example of system. ystem – These ecosystem develop in nature without hu system – These are created and maintained by human b so called man made or anthropogenic ecosystems. .

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edaphic factors.ECOSYSTEM STRUCTURE Ecosystem consists of two types of components. etc. topographic factors. ABIOTIC COMPONENTS: It includes non-living substances and factors of the ecosystem. For example-climatic factors. BIOTIC COMPONENTS: It includes all the living organisms present in the ecosystem. biotic and abiotic. For example-all plants and animals. .

Food chain is a sequence of organisms in a biotic community through which food passes with members of a step becoming food of the members of the next step of the sequence. Various levels of consumers and decomposers. . Each step or division in food chain which is characterized by a particular method of obtaining food is called trophic level. It consists of producers. in other words it is a list of ‘who eats whom' in a biotic community.

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pyramids are of three types: . sequencewise present in various trophic levels of a food chain with producers forming the base. followed by first order carnivores and so on with top carnivores forming the tip. An ecological pyramid is a graphic representation of an ecological parameter. herbivores above them.

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It provides stability to ecosystems. . 3.1. Food web is a network of food chains operating in an ecosystem which get connected at various trophic levels so as to form a no. 2. It allows endangered population to grow in size. of feeding connections amongst different organisms of the biotic community. 4. It does not allow a species to overgrow. Importance of food web: It does not allow any population to starve when members of lower trophic level decrease in no.

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This radiation is highly damaging to organisms. 2. This decrease has been linked to synthetic chemicals like chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) which are used as refrigerants and in fire extinguishers. Effects of ozone depletion: Skin Cancer 4. Ozone is a deadly poison. Decline in photosynthesis Death of young ones 6. The higher energy UV radiations split apart some molecular oxygen into free oxygen atoms. The amount of ozone in the atmosphere began to drop sharply in the 1980s.    1. It shields the surface of the earth from UV radiation from the sun. 3. Global Warming . Ozone at higher levels of the atmosphere is a product of UV radiation acting on oxygen molecule. Mutations may occur Cataract 5. like it is known to cause skin cancer in human beings. However at the higher levels of atmosphere. ozone performs an essential function. Ozone is a molecule formed by three atoms of oxygen.

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Combustible components are disposed by burning and non combustible wastes are used in landfill.Managing the Garbage we Produce   1. components of garbage are separated into decomposable. Recyclable wastes are taken up by rag pickers. combustible and non combustible components. Disposal of garbage Prior to disposal. Garbage management is the non pollutant disposal of the waste. 2. recyclable. Like this garbage is managed and disposed in a proper way. Decomposable wastes are eaten up by pigs and stray animals or they are composted. vegetables and fruit articles along with other domestic wastes. 3. .  Garbage is refuse of food. It consists of three steps: Collection of garbage Transport of garbage from collection site to disposal site.

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