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Grade X (Smt 1) 2) 1. Recount Narrative 2. Narrative Descriptive 3. Procedure News Item Grade XI (Smt 1) 2) 1. Report Narrative 2. Narrative Spoof 3. Analytical Exposition Hortatory Grade XII (Smt 1) 2) 1. Narrative 2. Explanation Review 3. Discussion


Asking comments/opinions Giving comments/opinions Expressing satisfactions Expressing dissatisfactions Giving advice Warning Expressing relief, pain,
and pleasure


Expressing Annoyance Expressing Anger Asking for and Offering
Suggestions Asking for and Offering Recommendations

Short Functional Texts

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Letters Listeners letters Invitation cards Announcements Advertisements Manual instructions Editorials Schedules Contents Tourism information


Lesson Materials (Theory and Practice)

Click to edit Master subtitle style

Functions of Texts
Texts Spoof Recount Report Analytical Exposition News Item Functions
To retell a humorous twist To retell events for the purpose of informing or entertaining To classify and describe the phenomena of our world. To persuade the reader or listener that something is in the case To inform readers, listeners or viewers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important

Functions of Texts
Texts Anecdote Functions

To share with others an account of an unusual or amusing incident To amuse, entertain and to deal with actual experience in different ways, I.e. to gain and hold the readers interest in a story. To describe how something is accomplished through a sequence of actions or steps To describe a particular person, place or thing To persuade the reader or listener that something should or should not be the case




Hortatory Exposition

Functions of Texts
Texts Functions Explanation

To explain the processes involved in the formation or workings of natural or socio-cultural phenomena To present (at least) two points of view about an issue To critique an art work or event for a public audience To explain the processes involved in the formation (evolution) of a sociocultural phenomenon, as though a natural phenomenon

Discussion Review


Linguistic Features of Spoof Text

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Focus on individual participants Use of action verbs Temporal Circumstances Spatial circumstances Use of past tense

Schematic Structures of Spoof Text

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Orientation Event(s) happened Twist punch

: sets the scene : tell what : provides the line

Schematic Structure of Reports


General Classification: tells what the phenomenon under discussion is. Description: tells what the phenomenon under discussion is like in terms of parts (and their functions), qualities, habits or behaviors, if living; uses, if nonnatural

Linguistic Features of Report Text

v v v v

Focus on Generic Participants Use Relational Processes Use of simple present tense No temporal sequence

Schematic Structure of Narrative Text

Orientation Evaluation Complication Resolution Re-orientation

Linguistic Features of Narrative Text

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Focus on specific and usually individualized participants Use of material processes Use of relational processes Use of temporal conjunction Use of past tense

Schematic Structure of Analytical Exposition

Thesis Position: introduces topic and indicates writers position Preview: outlines the main v Arguments Point: restates main argument outlined in preview Elaboration: develops and supports each point/argument v Reiteration: restates writers position

Linguistic Features of a Analytical Exposition

Focus on generic human and nonhuman participants Use of simple present tense Use of relational processes Use of internal conjunction to stage argument Reasoning through causal conjunction or nominalization

Schematic Structure of Hortatory Exposition


Thesis: announcement of issue of concern Arguments: reasons for concern, leading to recommendation Recommendation: statement of what ought or ought not to happen

Linguistic Features of a Hortatory Exposition

Focus on generic human and non- human participants Use of simple present tense Use of mental processes: to state what writer thinks or feels about issue e.g. realize, feel, appreciate. Use of material processes: to state what happens e.g. drive, travel, spend, etc. Use of relational processes: to state what is or should be e.g. doesnt seem, is, are, etc.

Schematic Structure
Orientation Major Complication

Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs

Snow White, She lived with her Aunt and Uncle Once upon a time there lived a little girl named

Linguistic Features
Past Tense Temporal Circumstance Specific participant Mental process Relational process M aterial process Temporal Conjunction Temporal Conjunction Specific participant



Major Resolution

because her parents were died. One day she heard her Uncle and Aunt talking about leaving Snow White in the castle because they both wanted to go to America and they didnt have enough money to take Snow White. Snow White did not want her Uncle and Aunt to do this so she decided it would be best if she ran away. The next morning she ran away from home when her Aunt and Uncle were having breakfast. She ran away into the woods. She was very tired and hungry. Then she saw this little cottage. She knocked but no one answered so she went inside and fell asleep. Meanwhile, the seven dwarfs were coming home from work. They went inside. There they found Snow White sleeping. Then Snow White woke up. She saw the dwarfs. The dwarfs said, What is your name? Snow White said, My name is Snow White. Doc said, If you wish, you may live here with us. Snow White said, Oh could I? Thank you. Then Snow White told the dwarfs the whole story and Snow White and the 7 dwarfs lived happily ever after.

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Transactional dialog Interpersonal dialog

Andy : Ben, did you buy any ice cream? Benny : No. I only bought some bread, milk, and an apple. Andy : Oh, okay. Ill buy the ice cream then.

Interpersonal Dialog
A: Hi, Ben. How are you? B: Not bad. Thanks. And yourself? A: Fine, thanks. B: Good weather, isnt it? A: Yes, better than last week. B: I know. That was terrible, dont you think? A: Indeed. I had never seen such heavy rain in my life. B: Neither had I. A: It was pouring! B: It was, isnt it? A: The winds blew trees down. One of those trees fell on my neighbors car. B: Thats too bad. A: Yeah. Now if youll excuse me, Ive got a class to attend. See you. B: See you. Bye.