Bio 131 Biotechnology and Society

Week One Plant Biotechnology

Thomas Fairchild
What is plant biotechnology?

Fairchild’s mule

Fairchild’s mule gave birth to many of today’s hybrid flowers
What is plant biotechnology?

“We have recently advanced our knowledge of genetics to a point where we can manipulate life in a way never intended by nature. We must proceed with the utmost caution in the application of this new-found knowledge.”
What is plant biotechnology?

— Luther Burbank

Burbank was a pioneer in the development of several hybrid plants in the late 1800s and early 1900s
– plums – berries – prunes – peaches – potatoes
What is plant biotechnology?

Selective breeding led to higher-yielding varieties. What is plant biotechnology? .

Teosinte What is plant biotechnology? Modern corn .

Gregor Johann Mendel What is plant biotechnology? .

Traditional plant breeding DNA is a strand of genes. Traditional donor Commercial variety New variety (many genes are transferred) X Desired Gene = Desired gene (crosses) Plant biotechnology Using plant biotechnology. Desired gene Commercial variety New variety = (only desired gene is transferred) (transfers) Desired gene What is plant biotechnology? . a single gene may be added to the strand. much like a strand of pearls. Traditional plant breeding combines many genes at once.

Plant biotechnology definition: A precise process in which scientific techniques are used to develop useful and beneficial plants. What is plant biotechnology? .

“No conceptual distinction exists between genetic modification of plants and microorganisms by classical methods or by molecular techniques that modify DNA and transfer genes.” — National Research Council What is plant biotechnology? .

More than 50 biotech food products have been approved for commercial use in the United States • • • • • Canola Corn Cotton Papaya Potato • • • • • Soybeans Squash Sugarbeets Sweet corn Tomato Products on the market .

Four crops accounted for nearly all of the global biotech crop area in 2002 Soybeans 62% Corn 21% Cotton 12% Canola 5% Source: International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications Products on the market .

Indonesia. Honduras. South Africa. India. Bulgaria. Mexico.Four countries accounted for 99 percent* of the global biotech crop area in 2002 United States 66% Argentina 23% Canada 6% China 4% *Australia. Romania. Germany. Spain and Uruguay accounted for the remaining 1 percent of biotech crop acres. Source: International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications Products on the market . Colombia.

6 44.2 39.7 52.7 11 Source: International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications Products on the market .Global plantings of biotech crops increased by 12 percent in 2002 70 Global Area of GM Crops 60 58.8 20 10 0 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 1.9 Million Hectares 50 40 30 27.

Chair of the International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications Products on the market .” — Clive James.“Adoption rates for transgenic crops are unprecedented and are the highest for any new technologies by agricultural industry standards.

Benefits of biotechnology More food Better food Better for the environment .

5 billion $1 billion Pesticide reduction 46 million pounds 117 million pounds 163 million pounds 14 billion pounds $2.5 billion Benefits of biotechnology – More food .More food Yield increase Current cultivars Potential cultivars Total 4 billion pounds 10 billion pounds Net economic impact $1.

5 billion pound yield increase and $125 million in additional income • Bt cotton – 185 million pound yield increase and $102 million in additional income • Biotech soybeans – $1 billion in additional income through production cost savings Source: National Center for Food and Agricultural Policy Benefits of biotechnology – More food .More food • Bt corn – 3.

Products in the pipeline Agronomic benefits • Oranges resistant to citrus canker • Disease-resistant sweet potatoes • Pest.and diseaseresistant cassava • Disease-resistant bananas Benefits of biotechnology – More food .

Agricultural yield increases are declining 3 Percentage per year 1967–1982 1982–1994 1995–2020 2 1 0 Developing countries World Developed countries Source: C. Center for Plant Biotechnology Research.S. Alabama Benefits of biotechnology – More food . Prakash. Tuskegee University.

By 2025. there will be another 2 billion mouths to feed — United Nations Population Fund Benefits of biotechnology – More food .

Distribution of world population growth to 2010 Former Soviet Union 0% Europe 0% North America 5% Africa 35% South America 8% Asia 51% Benefits of biotechnology – More food .

Distribution of world income growth to 2010 Former Soviet Union 4% Europe 24% North America 27% Africa 6% South America 9% Asia 32% Benefits of biotechnology – More food .

S.000 Impoverished areas (Africa) – Population: 800 million – Income: <$400 Benefits of biotechnology – More food . Japan) – Population: 1 billion – Income: $5.Developed world (EU. U.2 billion – Income: $400 $5.000+ More food will be needed to feed a growing global middle class Developing world (Asia. Latin America) – Population: 4..

— Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research Benefits of biotechnology – More food .Farmers will need to at least double production over the next 25 years to meet increased demand.

founder and president of the nonprofit AgBioWorld Foundation Benefits of biotechnology – More food .Without an increase in farm productivity.S. an additional 4 billion acres of arable land will need to come under the plow by 2050. Prakash. — C.

Better food •Herbicide Resistant soybeans •Pest Resistant bt corn •Virus resistant papya Benefits of biotechnology – Better food .

Products in the pipeline Enhanced nutritional qualities • Tomatoes enriched with flavonols • Soybean and canola oils with higher levels of vitamin E • Vitamin-enriched rice • Decaffeinated coffee Benefits of biotechnology – Better food .

Products in the pipeline Enhanced nutritional qualities “I think in the long term we will have foods that are less hazardous because biotechnology will have eliminated or diminished their allergenicity. University of Nebraska Benefits of biotechnology – Better food .D. Ph.” — Steve Taylor. Department of Food Science and Technology.

Products in the pipeline Functional foods • Bananas to deliver a hepatitis vaccine • Apples to protect against Respiratory Syncytial virus • Potatoes to protect against cholera. E. coli and Norwalk virus Benefits of biotechnology – Better food .

executive director of the Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST) Benefits of biotechnology – Environment .” — Teresa Gruber. air and water quality are enhanced through the responsible use of current biotechnology-derived soybean. corn and cotton crops.Better for the environment “The results clearly show that soil.

Conservation tillage improves wildlife habitat. water quality Nearly three-fourths of no-till soybean acres and 86 percent of no-till cotton acres were planted with biotech varieties. Source: Conservation Technology Information Center Benefits of biotechnology – Environment .

” — Iowa farmer Roy Bardole Benefits of biotechnology – Environment .Better for the environment “We have wildlife on the farm today that my dad has never seen before. and he’s over 90 years old.

Government Regulation 35 .

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• American Dietetic Association • American Medical Association • Institute of Food Technologists • World Health Organization .

“The College supports the use of biotechnology to develop food crops that contribute to global food security and enhance the safety and nutritional value of the food supply.” — American College of Nutrition Statement on Crop Biotechnology .

” — Society of Toxicology Statement on the Safety of Foods Produced Through Biotechnology ..“There is no reason to suppose that the process of food production through biotechnology leads to risks of a different nature than those .. created by conventional breeding.

” — General Accounting Office .“Biotechnology experts believe that the current regimen of tests has been adequate for ensuring that GM foods marketed to consumers are as safe as conventional foods.

the use of more precise technology and the greater regulatory scrutiny probably make them [biotech foods] even safer than conventional plants and foods.“Indeed.” — European Commission research report .

USDA report says impact of Bt corn on butterflies is “negligible” .

N. report says biodiversity will be threatened on 72 percent of global land area in 30 years. enhancing biodiversity U. .Increasing production on existing land preserves forests.

Biotech foods are labeled when they are significantly different from their conventional counterparts .

USDA Organic Seal program provides consumers with choices .

— Jacob Bronowski. author The Ascent of Man .Hybrid wheat gave birth to agriculture and some say civilization itself.

Plant biotechnology represents the next leap forward .

report says Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) could be ―breakthrough technology for developing countries‖ • African scientists call biotech a ―major opportunity to enhance the production of food crops‖ .N.Making progress • India approves planting of biotech cotton • U.

environment‖ – Feedstuffs • ―Genetic crops could help reduce pesticides‖ – UPI • ―Biotech holds great promise for beets‖ – Grand Forks Herald CBI . eaters‖ – The Spokesman Review • ―Biotech crop report cites benefits for food production. yields‖ – Reuters • ―Biotechnology tastes sweeter and sweeter‖ – Omaha World Herald • ―Biotech crops.Making progress • ―Biotech crops boost farm income. an environmental ally‖ – Akron Beacon Journal • ―Biotech food great for farmers.

vice president of the Pontifical Academy for Life .“We are increasingly encouraged that the advantages of genetic engineering of plants and animals are greater than the risks..” — Bishop Elio Sgreccia. We cannot agree with the position of some groups that say it is against the will of God to meddle with the genetic make-up of plants and animals. ..

The more people know.. ‘02 CBI . Develop new varieties of crops 67% 51% Genetically modify foods 50% 32% Heard some or a lot Heard little or nothing Jul.. the more they support biotechnology Percentage who support biotechnology to.

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