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Application of Maths in real life

Why u Need 2 study Application of Maths??


Natural Science
medicine Social Science Applied mathematics, the branch of mathematics concerned

with application of mathematical knowledge to other fields, inspires and makes use of new mathematical discoveries and sometimes leads to the development of entirely new mathematical disciplines, such as statistics and game theory.

Introduction:
Matrix
Definition: A matrix is an ordered set of numbers listed in

rectangular form that is Rows & Columns. Representation:

"Matrix" is the Latin word for womb, and it retains that

sense in English. It can also mean more generally any place in which something is formed or produced.
The origin of mathematical matrices lie with the study

of systems of simultaneous linear equations. An important Chinese text from between 300 BC and AD 200, Nine Chapters of the Mathematical Art (Chiu Chang Suan Shu), gives the first known example of the use of matrix methods to solve simultaneous equations.

The term "matrix" for such arrangements was introduced in 1850 by James Joseph Sylvester

Applications

Of

Matrices

Transformations:

Transformations are an important part of every 3D application. This knol discusses the different types of transformations and what you can do with them. The most important transformations you will encounter are : World transformation : change the scale, translation and rotation of an object. The transformation can be the result of a concatenation (multiplication) of several transformation matrices. A world transformation is usually a unique transformation for each 3D object in the scene.

Projection transformation : Can


add a perspective projection to the scene or an orthogonal projection. This transformation uses homogenous coordinates. A number of specific applications of transformations :

Aligning an object with the camera (object is always in the same relative position from the camera) A hierarchy of transformations can be used to transform objects with parent child relationships (for example the rotation of a steering wheel in a moving car)

Applications..
2.Matrices can also be used to display networks allowing
mathematical calculations to be worked out more easily with relation to problems such as traffic flow and plumbing.

Interesting Ones coming now

3.Real-life Applications:
DIGITAL IMAGES:
A digital camera produces a matrix of numbers when it

takes a picture. The lens of the camera focuses an image on a flat rectangular surface covered with tiny light-sensitive electronic devices. The devices detect the color and brightness of the image in focus, and this information is saved as a matrix of numbers in the camera's memory. When a picture is downloaded from a camera to a computer and altered using image-editing software, it is subjected to mathematical manipulations described by matrix algebra.

Real-life Applications:
FLYING THE SPACE SHUTTLE:
In the early days of flight, pilots pushed and pulled on a

joystick connected to wires. The wires ran over pulleys to the wings and rudder, which steered the plane. It would not be possible to fly as complex a craft as the Space Shuttle, which is steered not only by movable pieces of wing, but by 44 thruster jets, by directly mechanical means like these. Steering must be done by computer, in response to measurements of astronaut hand pressure on controls. In this method the flight computer combines measurements from sensors that detect how the ship is moving with measurements from the controls.

These measurements are fed through the flight computers of the Shuttle as vectors, that is, as n 1 matrices, where the measurements from ship and pilot are the numbers in the vectors. The ship's computer performs calculations on these vectors using matrix algebra in order to decide how to move the control surfaces (moveable parts of the wing and tail) and how to fire the 44 steering jets.

Real-life Applications:
DESIGNING CARS: Before the 1970s, car makers designed new cars by

making first drawings, then physical models, then the actual cars. Since the 1970s, they have also used a tool called computer-aided design (CAD). CAD is now taught in many high schools using software far more sophisticated than was available to the big auto makers in the beginning, but the principles are the same. When a new image has been agreed on, the next step is the creation of a "wireframe" model.

The wireframe model is a mass of lines, defined by numbers stored in matrices. The wireframe car model is stored as a collection of many matrices, each describing one part. More importantly, by using matrix-based mathematical techniques called finite element methods, the car company can use the wireframe model to predict how the design will behave in crashes and how smoothly air will flow over it when it is in motion. These features can be experimentally improved by changing numbers in matrices rather than by building expensive test models.

Most Abundant Application:


Cry Pto Graphy

Cryptography.
Definition(Technical) Cryptographycalled "crypto" by its practitionersis the

study of codes and ciphers and their use to protect information. Cryptography is a scientific mix of mathematical theory and computational application which allows the confidential transfer of information.
Definition(Simple) Cryptography, to most people, is concerned with keeping

communications private. Indeed, the protection of sensitive communications has been the emphasis of cryptography throughout much of its history

Uses.
Cryptography has existed, in one form or another, since the ancient Greeks began toying with methods for encoding with mathematics. In the modern period, cryptography was utilized mainly in wartime to protect sensitive military information, and in the high-stakes and secretive world of diplomacy and spying. II. For years, computer-based cryptography was almost exclusively used by the United States National Security Agency (NSA) for coding and decoding sensitive information and messages during the Cold War. For many years after private-sector computer scientists began working on cryptography, the government fought such efforts out of concern for national security.
I.

Encryption..(Encoding)
.

Encryption is the transformation of data into some unreadable form. Its purpose is to ensure privacy by keeping the information hidden from anyone for whom it is not intended, even those who can see the encrypted data.

Encryption Process
I. Convert the text of the message into a stream of numerical values. II. Place the data into a matrix. III. Multiply the data by the encoding matrix. IV. Convert the matrix into a stream of numerical values that contains the encrypted message.

Decryption..(Decoding)
Decryption is the reverse of encryption; it is the transformation of encrypted data back into some intelligible form.

Decryption Process
Place the encrypted stream of numbers that represents an encrypted message into a matrix. II. Multiply by the decoding matrix. The decoding matrix is the inverse of the encoding matrix. III. Convert the matrix into a stream of numbers. IV. Convert the numbers into the text of the original message.
I.

Encryption and decryption require the use of some secret information, usually referred to as a key. Depending on the encryption mechanism used, the same key might be used for both encryption and decryption, while for other mechanisms, the keys used for encryption and decryption might be different.
Today governments use sophisticated methods of coding and decoding messages. One type of code, which is extremely difficult to break, makes use of a large matrix to encode a message. The receiver of the message decodes it using the inverse of the matrix. This first matrix is called the encoding matrix and its inverse is called the decoding matrix.

Concept Of Public & Private Key


The two basic infrastructures used in cryptographic

systems are public-key and private-key. A private key maintained by a single entity and a public key available to any user over a network. A central authority, such as an online bank, broadcasts its public key, enabling any client to send encrypted messages to that destination. Only that original authority, however, can decrypt the communications using its private key

Terminologies used In cryptography:


Plain Text: Original data or text is known as Plain text. Cipher Text: The encrypted message(unreadable message). Encryption: Changing the Plain text to unreadable. Decryption: Changing the cipher text to plain text.

Summary.

Example: Consider the message "Red Rum"


A message is converted into numeric form according to

some scheme. The easiest scheme is to let

Space=0, A=1,B=2,C=3,D=4,E=5, F=6,G=7,H=8,I=9,J=10,K=11, L=12,M=13,N=14,O=15,P=16,

Q=17,R=18,S=19,T=20,U=21,
V=22,W=23,X=24,Y=25 & Z=26.

i.

The message "Red Rum" would become 18, 5, 4, 0, 18, 21,13. ii. This data is placed into matrix form. The size of the matrix depends on the size of the encryption key. iii. Let's say that our encryption matrix (encoding matrix) is a 2x2 matrix. Since there are seven pieces of data, I would place that into a 4x2 matrix and fill the last spot with a space to make the matrix complete. iv. Let's call the original, unencrypted data matrix A.

18 4 18 13

5 0 21 0

A=

It is The original, unencrypted data matrix A.

There is an invertible matrix which is called the encryption matrix or the encoding matrix. We'll call it matrix B. Since this matrix needs to be invertible, it must be square. This could really be anything, it's up to the person encrypting the matrix. I'll use this matrix.
4 -2

B=
-1 3

The unencrypted data is then multiplied by our encoding matrix. The result of this multiplication is the matrix containing the encrypted data. We'll call it matrix X. 67 -21 16 -8 51 27 52 -26

X=AB=

The receiver must calculate the inverse of the encryption matrix. This would be the decryption matrix or the decoding matrix.
0.3 0.2 0.4

B-1 =

0.1

The receiver then multiplies the encrypted data by the inverse of the encryption matrix. The result is the original unencrypted matrix.

A = X B-1 =
18

18 4

5 0 21 0

13

The receiver then takes the matrix and breaks it apart into values 18, 5, 4, 0, 18, 21, 13, 0 and converts each of those into a character according to the numbering scheme. 18=R, 5=E, 4=D, 0=space, 18=R, 21=U, 13=M, 0=space. Trailing spaces will be discarded and the message is received as intended: "RED RUM"