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5/28/12 SILVINUS CLISSON PRAGASH Click to edit Master subtitle style
HOT AND DRY CLIMATE – GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS
Hot and dry climatic regions are characterised by very high radiation levels, ambient temperatures and relatively low humidity , this region comprises of the arid and semi arid regions of India. A long stretch of land situated to the south of Tropic of Cancer and east of the western ghats and the Cardamom Hills experiences this climate. It includes Karnataka, interior and western Tamil Nadu, western Andhra Pradesh and central Maharashtra. This area receives minimal rainfall due to being situated in the rain shadow area. This region is a famine prone zone with very unreliable rainfall which varies between 40 to 75 cm annually. The coldest month is December but even in this month the temperature remains between 20°C and 24°C. The months of March to May are hot and dry with mean monthly temperatures of around 32°C. The vegetation mostly comprises grasses with a few scattered trees due to the rainfall. Hence this area is not very well suited for permanent agriculture. Most of western Rajasthan experiences an arid climatic 5/28/12
HOT AND DRY CLIMATE – GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS 5/28/12 .
This protects the building from direct impact of hot winds which can be quite uncomfortable. An east-west orientation is preferred in hot and dry climatic regions. • • • Locating the built form in a depression with proper ventilation is advantageous due to the concept of hot air rising up.HOT AND DRY CLIMATE – Landscape Design Considerations • Site planning and orientation which is ambient for the prevalent climatic conditions .Regions in this zone are generally flat and heat up uniformly. 5/28/12 In case of an undulating site. constructing on the leeward side of the slope is preferred. .
5/28/12 • Streets must be narrow so that they cause mutually shade the buildings. .HOT AND DRY CLIMATE – Landscape Design Considerations • Waterbodies like ponds and lakes act as heat sinks and can also be used for evaporative cooling. They humidify the air and make it comfortable inside. Streets need to be oriented in the north-south direction to block solar radiation. Fountains and water cascades in the vicinity of a building also aid in cooling.
Earth berming can help lower the temperature and also deflect hot summer winds.HOT AND DRY CLIMATE – Landscape Design Considerations • Courtyards are means of ventilation they also act as heat sinks during the day and radiate the heat back at night. Grass can be used as ground cover to absorb solar radiation and aid evaporative cooling. 5/28/12 • • .
Wet soils should be avoided or with proper mitigation may be acceptable. 5/28/12 • . Earth berm construction requires dry soils of low conductivity.HOT AND DRY CLIMATE – Landscape Design Considerations • An earth berm is a landscaping feature that creates a barrier. adds interest to a flat landscape. Earth bermed building should be vented with an appropriate air exchange and slab should be sealed and vented for random gas mitigation. improves drainage and can separate areas of land. A mounding process that adds earth to a flat or low-lying area until it is built up is all that is needed to create a berm.
HOT AND DRY CLIMATE – Landscape Design Considerations 5/28/12 .
habitats or corridors for wildlife. and recreational opportunities. temperature control.HOT AND DRY CLIMATE – Landscape Design Considerations • A roof garden is any garden on the roof of a building. roof plantings may provide food. hydrological benefits. 5/28/12 . Besides the decorative benefit. architectural enhancement.
Further. Few of them tolerate shade. Low humidity and rainfall and high summer temperatures dictate the use of tolerant plants as well as management techniques that cope with the high potential for water loss. The second approach calls for native species and other regionally adapted plants that can survive with less soil improvement and that require relatively little supplemental irrigation. The first involves using conventional ornamentals that are tolerant of heat. flowering and dormancy that relate to seasonal moisture availability. 5/28/12 Ground-cover plantings in dry-climate region scan be done in two basic ways. • • • . many of these species have distinct periods of growth.HOT AND DRY CLIMATE – Landscape Design Considerations • Arid climates place special demands on landscape ornamentals. Plants from arid regions rarely grow as continuous. dry air and periodic moisture stress. Native and regionally adapted species often provide special challenges. and even fewer withstand poor drainage or excessive irrigation. carpet-like ground covers. So choose species must be in line with the context.
Contouring also can be helpful for capturing rainfall. and then locate plants to take advantage of small microclimates within the contoured landscape. By studying these areas and identifying other microclimates in the landscape. Instead. it will not compromise the design or appearance of the ground-cover planting. will look different throughout the year. it is possible to incorporate a wide variety of ground covers into dry-climate landscapes. if a specific plant dies. This type of landscape also lends diversity of character and seasonal variation to its aesthetic value and. It also is a flexible approach. by design. develop a more natural-looking design by combining several plant species in natural-looking drifts or groupings This design strategy is useful for large perimeter and foreground areas. Grade the site with topographic relief for added visual character. courtyards and raised planters often are places where color and refreshing foliage are the most welcome. Entries. Roof gardens are also a means of reducing heat gain in such 5/28/12 • • • • . it is best to avoid large. continuous plantings of a single ground-cover species.HOT AND DRY CLIMATE – Landscape Design Considerations • When working with native species.
By using emitters with varying discharge rates and by adding or subtracting emitters as needed. greater drought resistance. Plus. because of lower application rates.HOT AND DRY CLIMATE – Landscape Design Considerations • Drip irrigation provides a distinct advantage over sprinklers by supplying moisture from below the plants. which encourages deeper rooting and. 5/28/12 . Thus. This avoids wetting foliage and surface organic matter. you can tailor irrigation to meet the needs of individual landscape plants. water penetrates the soil more deeply. something that can promote disease in xeric landscapes. shrubs and ground covers. drip irrigation can run for longer periods without runoff. Drip systems also enable us to use the same line to apply different amounts of water to various trees. ultimately.
The coarser the material. will also amend the soil as it decomposes. and give the garden a finished look. 5/28/12 The purpose of mulches is to reduce water evaporation. protect irrigation systems from harmful solar rays. Mulch is reported to reduce watering demand by 40 to 70 percent. prevent weeds by stopping photosynthesis. • • • • • . the thicker the mulch layer needs to be. Organic mulch. Mulch should be porous to air and water. such as shredded cedar bark or compost. buffer soil temperatures.HOT AND DRY CLIMATE – Landscape Design Considerations • Mulches are a sustainable landscape feature in hot and dry regions Mulches are opaque organic or inert materials applied in layers on top of bare soil and around trees and shrubs.
you might want to choose and grow plants that do not require more water than what your climate can naturally provide. composts. soil types. This can improve the quality of the soil with minimal cost on expensive soil amendments. Composting is a very useful technique when xeriscaping. You might have to put extra work on this because you need to replace the soil you have on your yard because areas with hot climate usually have dry soil that absorb to much water.HOT AND DRY CLIMATE – Landscape Design Considerations • Xeriscaping areas with dry climates is a landscaping technique that requires various techniques including proper plant selection. Because water conservation is your first issue. Soil type is another important factor to consider when planning to xeriscape. Aeration is improved when soil is composted and this allows for better water 5/28/12 • • • . Here are some tips you can keep in mind when trying out a xeriscape project of your own. The natural bacteria and fungi in compost helps soil both conserve water and give nutrients to the plants. The best way is to use native plants that do not require extra watering and soil amendments and can survive with what your environment can provide. mulch and plant placement. Use soil that can retain more water so that you don’t have to water very often.
HOT AND DRY CLIMATE – Landscape Design Considerations 5/28/12 .
HOT AND DRY CLIMATE • CII – Sohrabji Godrej Green Business Centre in Hyderabad is good example of landscape done in hot and dry region 5/28/12 .
design considerations for the landform is immaterial. Adequate shading measures are also necessary to protect the building from direct solar radiation. Since the area is humid. the humidity immediately around the home will be increased.HOT AND HUMID CLIMATE • In hot and humid climatic regions. high temperatures are accompanied by very high humidity levels leading to immense discomfort. Incase of slopes and depressions. Cross ventilation is hence very essential here. Buildings should be spread out with large open spaces in between for unrestricted air movement. The goal of landscaping in this area is to channel the breeze toward the home and maximize shade in the summer while allowing the sun to penetrate during the winter. If this is done. For flat sites. it is very important not to place plants that require watering near the home. An important element of this region is plant placement. 5/28/12 • • • . the building should be located on the windward side or crest to take advantage of cool breezes.
Home comfort levels and energy costs can be also dramatically affected by shade. • • • Landscape techniques.6°F in only five minutes. The width of the streets should be such that the intense solar radiation during late morning and early afternoon is avoided during the summers. ground temperatures were found to drop an average of 3 . Major streets should be oriented parallel to or within 30 deg of the prevailing wind direction during summer months to encourage ventilation in warm and humid regions.HOT AND HUMID CLIMATE • Water bodies are not essential as they would tend to further increase the humidity. • When shaded. Studies have also shown that temperatures on a forest floor can be as much as 25°F cooler than those recorded at the tree tops. • 5/28/12 . A north-south direction is ideal from the point of view of blocking solar radiation. shrubs and vines will help alter the climate outside your home and modify indoor temperatures. Creative landscape planning with trees.
since these surfaces receive about fifty percent more sunshine during the warmer months than those facing north and south. .HOT AND HUMID CLIMATE Trees • • When planning your design. When planted a few feet away from the house. and vase-shaped tree canopies will provide shade for the longest time. round. they can provide extra shade and control humidity without obstructing air currents. A tree planted ten feet from the west wall will shade an area four times longer than a tree planted twenty feet. Spreading. keep in mind that trees are more effective at shading when planted close to the home. since they can grow in more confined spaces than trees or shrubs. top priority should be providing shade for east and west windows and walls. Evergreen vines are a good choice for providing shade along the east and 5/28/12 Determine the best places to plant shade trees by observing which of the windows receive the most sun. Trellised vines can be used to shade windows where space is limited. • Shrubs • Shrubs are also useful for shading your home. A tree's shape also influences the duration of the shade. .
A tree planted ten feet from the west wall will shade an area four times longer than a tree planted twenty feet. • Shrubs • Shrubs are also useful for shading . keep in mind that trees are more effective at shading when planted close to the home. Your top priority should be providing shade for east and west windows and walls. Evergreen vines are a good choice for providing shade along the east and west sides of 5/28/12 Determine the best places to plant shade trees by observing which of your windows receive the most sun. they can provide extra shade and control humidity without obstructing air currents. . . since these surfaces receive about fifty percent more sunshine during the warmer months than those facing north and south.HOT AND HUMID CLIMATE Trees • • When planning your design. since they can grow in more confined spaces than trees or shrubs. A tree's shape also influences the duration of the shade. When planted a few feet away from the house. and vase-shaped tree canopies will provide shade for the longest time. round. Spreading. Trellised vines can be used to shade windows where space is limited.
you can alter the direction of wind. leaving behind a cooler 5/28/12 • • • • • . By using trees. vines. and other vegetation.HOT AND HUMID CLIMATE • Using landscaping to manage breezes is a very effective means of controlling indoor home temperatures during both winter and summer. Groundcovers are low-growing plants that can be used to cover an area in the landscape. Paved areas also store heat. When warm winds pass over the leaf surface. Paved surfaces absorb the sun's heat and radiate it back into the immediate environment. All plants are capable of modifying their environment through a process called evaporative cooling. radiating warmth long after sundown. Research has shown that temperatures may be 15°F to 25°F hotter over asphalt or concrete. shrubs. Planting groundcovers around paved areas can help reduce these temperatures. Evidence indicates that taller groundcovers--with their larger leaf surface--can provide even more cooling than shorter groundcovers such as mowed grass. surface water absorbs the heat. Plants release water through pores in their leaves. The warmed water then evaporates into the atmosphere.
HOT AND HUMID CLIMATE 5/28/12 .
vegetation may be used like a parasol. is that trees and other plants represent a natural protective element against solar radiation as well as wind control.HOT AND HUMID CLIMATE Plant barriers • • In the case of warm and humid microclimates. as in the case of palm trees. . along with its various aesthetic benefits in the urban landscape. • 5/28/12 The usefulness of vegetation. but whose tall trunks will easily allow unimpeded ventilation. whose perennial leaves are able to block solar radiation. where the greater part of the year requires protection from excessive solar radiation and at the same time the passage of air.
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