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Changes In the business environment

-Several changes are expected in the organizational function as literature review indicates so. -Organizations adopt bureaucratic structures if they are stable and decentralized structures if they are complex. -Now organizations apply Techniques such as total quality management (TQM) or Just in time method (JIT). -Globalization has increased competition and many organizations struggle to keep up with this fact. - Casico (1999), Sanchez (1994) describe in our book about looks of how jobs would be in future -Experts also describe about boundaryless organizations where workers will respond to changes by doing what needs to be accomplished for achieving goal rather than doing the same thing everyday . -In the end content of work will be the ultimate factor that will influence the kind of changes. The right balance will need to be adopted between speed, flexibility and planning, coordination and performance management.

Implication for jobs and job analysis

The constraints are brought by changes in Society, business and technology. Some likely developments in work analysis are as follow 1- Descriptors:- are the job features we examine during the job analysis usually attributes of people and the description of the work itself . Flexible and complex jobs present a challenge for describing them therefore competency modeling comes in hand which refers to Process of analyzing and describing types and range of abilities, knowledge, and skills present in an organization, or which it needs to acquire to gain a competitive advantage. 2-Flexability:-future jobs also present a challenge for the reason that there tasks will be changing frequently, one way is to define jobs inclusively as the handbook for analyzing jobs (US department of labor) does treating all such jobs as a single job that contains tasks of all the constituent pieces. But jobs that are complex and have tasks that change rapidly need to be handled in another way as a meaningful job description is impossible there fore analysis should be based on broad characteristics rather than specific ones. The characteristics might focus on attributes that are important regardless of task such as conscientious.

3-Personality Characteristics:- One type of descriptor likely to prove useful with flexible jobs is the personality characteristics. Big five theory comes in handy to serve as theoretical basis for determining the personality characteristics. It organizes personality characteristics which can be remembered by a mnemonic OCEAN which is openness to new experience, conscientiousness(dutiful, compliant), agreeableness( team player) and neuroticism (worried, negative). Although these characters are desirable in understanding a person but are not necessarily important to present in everyone. An agreeable person will well suited for teams but neurotic ones are worse team members. Although these characteristics can be used for job analysis but its not clear whether they are the most useful for predicting job performance as narrow characteristics are considered more useful such as values, self- esteem and locus of control which overlap big five but are not captured. One more drawback associated with it is that most of the mentioned characteristics are socially desirable where some might be more important in one job but not another but because they are socially desirable so they might be rated high for every job

4- Interpersonal relationships:- typical job analysis fails to capture the quality of interpersonal relationship. Interpersonal relationships in Organizations provides a challenging format to explore how to build effective relationships. Participants use their interactions with each other to create more awareness of how they behave and learn new, improved and more flexible ways of relating and influencing. Although the descriptors don't speak directly to the quality of relation, they could form the basis for rating scales for judging the requirements for interpersonal aspect of jobs. (a) teams:- are composed of multiple members with different roles an responsibilities. They work together to achieve a goal. Teams cause the importance of relationships to come to the forefront. As they are working together interpersonal difficulties among members are likely to cause trouble, job analysis for teams might focus on the dependencies among team members. (b) Customer service:- Good customer care depends on the quality of interpersonal relations. Such quality is difficult to capture in a list of tasks so more importance to the functional quality of services is given, which concerns the manner in which services are delivered to the customer for e.g. questioning with tact and diplomacy.

(C) Culture:- With increasing global competition, companies have representatives in many parts of world. Managers are often asked to work in other countries. In cases like these where people are to be dealt who are different from what one is usually used to can become an issue so different set of KSAOs and interpersonal skills are required for example social and perceptual skills. In case of postings knowledge of local customs may be relevant descriptor. The importance of power distance should be recognized which concerns with the social distance necessary such as in some places high- level employees can socialize with low levels but in other places they cannot.