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THE IMMUNE SYSTEM

The Acquired System

Stem cells
Produced in Bone Marrow Starting point of every cell in the body They mature into all the cells that the body is made out of.

The Immune System


Acquired Immunity
B-Cell Immunity Consist of B-cells Matures in the Bone Marrow Produce Anti-Bodies involved with Primary and Secondary response

Anti-Body in the making!

The Immune System


Germ goes here

Anti-Bodies
Specific anti-bodies are produced against specific antigens Made by B-Cells They neutralize and inactivate germs.

The Immune System


Primary Response
Takes 10-14 days to start Transient Not much anti-bodies are made It learns how to handle intruders

Secondary Response
Rapid onset Sustained High levels of anti-bodies are recruited already know how to fight intruders

The Immune System


Primary and Secondary Responses

First Flu infection

Second Flu infection

The Immune System


Acquired Immunity
T-Cell Immunity Consists of T-Cells Matures in the Thymus gland T-Cells are: T helper cells(CD4+) T killer cells(CD8+)

The nerdy T-Helper cell(CD4+)

T-Killer(CD8+) cell in action

The Immune System


Innate Immunity
Resistance of skin Destruction of organisms by the acids in the stomach Chemical compounds in the blood Cells called Macrophages that ingest foreign objects

Acquired Immunity
B-Cell Immunity
Consist of B-cells Produce Anti-Bodies involved with Primary and Secondary response

T-Cell Immunity
Consists of T-Cells T-Cells are: T helper cells T killer cells

HIV
Special Features:
Retrovirus Can incorporate itself into the genetic material of the bodys cells, mostly CD4+ cells Makes use of the enzyme Reverse Transcriptase Immune System attacks its own CD4+ cells, because they dont function properly Suppresses immune system

The HIVirus

String DNA

HIV
The Life cycle of HIV
Fusion Binding to the host cell Reverse Transcription incorporate HIVs genetic material into DNA Integration integrate the DNA of HIV with the DNA of the host cell Transcription a new strand of HIV genetic material is made Translation All the building blocks for a new virus are gathered Assembly The blocks are put together to form a new HIV

HIV
CD4+ Count:
To measure the total CD4+ cells/mm in your blood. It is an indicator of the strength of your immune system.

A normal man has between 500-1200 CD4+ cells/mm


A low CD4+ count means a high viral load in the blood When your CD4+ count drops below 350 CD4+ cells/mm, they start with ARV therapy