# Insurance Pricing

• Principle of Insurance Pricing-Premium collected should be sufficient
– To fund expected claim costs and administrative cost – To provide an expected profit to compensate for the cost of capital.

Expected claim costs

Investment income

• • • • Simplicity Stability Responsiveness Encouragement of loss control

Rating Terminology
• Insurance prices are called premiums. Premiums are based on rates and rates are based on per unit of exposure. • Rate is the price per unit of insurance. • Exposure units are quantitative units used in insurance pricing. • Loading refers to the amount that must be added to pure premium for other expenses, profit and margin for contingencies.

Rate making in property and liability insurance
• Judgment rating • Class rating • Merit rating
– Schedule rating – Retrospective Experience rating

Rate making in Life Insurance
• All claims are paid at the end of one year P(1+r) = claim payment Or P= claim payment/(1+r) • Therefore P would be lower for a higher rate of interest. • All claims are paid at the end of two years P= claim payment/(1+r)2

Term Insurance
• • • Calculation of Net single premium Yearly renewable Probability X Amount of Insurance X P.V factor Five year term insurance policy
– Death claim payable if the insured dies at any time within the five years – Death claim paid at the end of year in which the event occur, not at the end of five years. – Consequently, the cost of each year’s mortality must be computed separately and then added together to determine the net single premium. – For exam, if as per mortality table out of 10 million males alive at age zero, 9,210,289 are still alive at the beginning of age 45. of this 41,907 will die during this year. Therefore, the probability that a person at the age of 45 will die during the year is 41907/9210289. If at the age of 46,47,48,49 and 50 the number of people dying is 45,108, 48,536, 52,089 and 56,031. Calculate the amount of premium for Rs.1000 policy assuming interest rate to be 5%.

Whole life insurance
• Similar calculations to be carried out to the end of mortality table.

Net Annual Level Premium- whole life policy
• If premiums are paid annually, the net single premium must be converted into a net annual level premium, which must be mathematical equivalent of the net single premium. • The mathematical adjustment for the loss of premium and interest is accomplished by dividing the net single premium by the present value of an appropriate life annuity due of Rs.1. NALP= NSP/PVLAD of Re 1 for the premium paying period

Net Annual Level Premium- term insurance policy
• Going to the previous example the net annual level premium for a five year term insurance policy at the age of 45 is 22.74. • This sum must be divided by present value of five year temporary life annuity due of Rs.1. • For the first year, Re.1 is payable immediately. • Age 46 9168382/9210289*1*.9524=.948 • Age 47 9123274/9210289*1*.9070=.898 • Age 48 9074738/9210289*1*.8638=.851 • Age 49 9022649/9210289*1*.8227=.806 • PVLAD of Re.1= 4.503 • NALP = NSP/ PVLAD of Re.1 = 22.74/4.50 = 5.05

• • • • Net annual level premium plus All operating expences. Margin for contingencies In case of stock life insurers, a contribution to profits.

Reserves

Reserves in Property & Liability Insurance
– – the amount of premium estimated as required to cover the risk during the balance policy period falling after the balance sheet date (Unearned or Unexpired Premium Reserve UPR) As per the IRDA regulations, UPR would be 50 per cent of the net (of reinsurance) premium for all classes of business except the marine hull business, for which it is 100 per cent. the amounts expected to be paid in future in respect of the claims already reported by the balance sheet date. As per the IRDA regulations where the amounts of outstanding claims of insurers are known, the amount is to be provided in full, and where the amount of outstanding claims could be reasonably estimated according to the insurer, he may follow the case-by-case method, after taking into account the explicit allowance for changes in the settlement pattern or average claim amount, expenses and inflation.

Loss Reserve
– – –

Reserve for the amount expected to be paid in future in respect of claims that might have occurred but could not be reported to the insurer till the balance sheet date (Incurred But Not Reported - IBNR),
– To be determined using actuarial principles

• •

Reserve for the direct expenses expected to be normally incurred for the settlement of the above two classes of claims, and Reserves required to be held on a prudent basis towards catastrophe losses or a single incident giving rise to multiple claims.

Investments

Objectives
• Generally, under life insurance policies, premiums are received in advance and after providing for acquisition and management expenses, the current cost of claims and other outgo, the balance of premium is available for investment. • liquidity, • safety and • optimisation of yield