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Boundary Conditions

C1

Outline

Flow Inlets and Exits Wall, Repeating, and Pole Boundaries Internal Cell Zones Internal Face Boundaries

C2

Boundary Conditions

Boundaries direct and constrain motion of flow. Boundary Conditions are a required component of mathematical model. Mass Momentum Energy

out

Zones are a collection of cells (fluid or solid continuum) or cell faces (boundaries, interior surfaces). Surfaces are used for post-processing. in Surfaces can correspond to Zones:

walls

C3 Fluent Inc. 5/30/2012

Define Boundary Conditions...

Choose the zone in Zone list. Click on selected zone type in Type list Click Set.. button

Can also select boundary zone in graphics window using right mouse button.

Useful if:

Setting up problem for first time Two or more zones of same type in problem.

C4

Wide range of boundary conditions permit flow to enter and exit solution domain. Types of boundary conditions for specification of flow inlets and exits:

General

Incompressible

Mass flow inlet Pressure far-field Inlet vent, outlet vent, intake fan, exhaust fan

C5 Fluent Inc. 5/30/2012

Compressible flows

Special

Inlet and Outlet boundary conditions are available to specify fluxes for:

Internal Flows: jet engine, reactor External Flows: aircraft in flight, natural convection flows Select inlet and outlet boundary location and shape such that flow either goes in or out.

General guidelines:

Not necessary, but will typically observe better convergence. Indicates incorrect set-up.

C6

Defines velocity and scalar properties of flow at inlet boundaries. Useful when velocity or velocity profile is known at inlet. Intended for incompressible flows only.

C7

User-defined functions (UDF) can be used to define spatial- and timevarying velocity profiles (magnitude and direction). If upstream flow comes from region of constant total energy and there are no losses (upstream), it may be easier to use the Pressure Inlet condition.

Can force the solution to be non-physical, e.g., imposes velocity field, etc., at boundary that may not be intended.

C8

When turbulent flow enters domain at inlet, outlet, or at a far-field boundary, FLUENT 5 requires boundary values for:

Set k and explicitly Set turbulence intensity and turbulence length scale Set turbulence intensity and turbulent viscosity ratio Set turbulence intensity and hydraulic diameter

Exhaust of a turbine Intensity = 20 % Length scale = 1 - 10 % of blade span Downstream of perforated plate or screen Intensity = 10 % Length scale = screen/hole size Fully-developed flow in a duct or pipe Intensity = 5 % Length scale = hydraulic diameter

C9 Fluent Inc. 5/30/2012

Pressure Preliminaries

Can be expressed relative to operating pressure as the gauge pressure: pabsolute p gauge poperating

operating pressure

vacuum

C10

Pressure at thermodynamic state which would exist if fluid were brought to rest (zero velocity) isentropically. 1/2 v2 is referred to as the dynamic pressure. For incompressible flow:

poperating RT

pabsolute RT

C11 Fluent Inc. 5/30/2012

For incompressible, constant-density flows, operating pressure not used. For incompressible flows using ideal-gas law to determine density

Select incompressible-ideal-gas in Define Materials... Set operating pressure close to mean pressure in problem.

C12

Defines total pressure, temperature, and other scalar quantities at flow inlets. Also requires direction of velocity vector to be defined.

Can get non-physical results if you dont specify reasonable direction for velocity vector. flow rate and/or velocity is not known (e.g., buoyancy-driven flows). free boundary in an external or unconfined flow needs to be defined. Suitable for compressible and incompressible flows.

Useful when:

C13

Mechanical head of pressure/total pressure drives flow into computational domain. Mass flux varies depending on interior solution and direction specified for velocity vector. Value specified for total pressure used as static pressure wherever outflow occurs. Total temperature set to static temperature for incompressible flows.

Note:

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Flow exits computational domain at fixed static pressure. Requires specification of static (gauge) pressure at outlet boundary. All other flow quantities at the pressure outlet boundary are extrapolated from the interior. Value of specified static pressure:

used only while exit flow is subsonic. ignored for supersonic flow (pressure is extrapolated from flow in interior).

C15 Fluent Inc. 5/30/2012

Required for calculations if flow reverses direction at Pressure Outlet boundary during solution process. When backflow occurs, it is assumed to be normal to the boundary.

Cannot specify the direction of the flow entering the domain, in contrast to pressure inlet boundary condition.

Convergence difficulties minimized by realistic values for backflow quantities. Value specified for static pressure used as total pressure wherever backflow occurs.

Pressure Outlet must be used when problem is set up with Pressure Inlet.

C16

Outflow Boundary

Flow exiting domain at Outflow boundary has zero normal gradients for all flow variables except pressure. FLUENT extrapolates required information from interior. Useful when:

Details of flow velocity and pressure not known prior to solution of flow problem. Appropriate where exit flow is close to fully developed condition.

Note: Use of Pressure Outlet (instead of Outflow) often results in better rate of convergence when backflow occurs during iteration.

C17

with compressible flows. with the Pressure Inlet boundary condition (use Velocity Inlet instead):

Combination does not uniquely set a pressure gradient over the whole domain.

Flow enters domain Gradients in flow direction are significant Conditions downstream of exit plane impact flow in domain

outflow

C18

Mass flow divided equally among all outflow boundaries by default. Flow Rate Weighting (FRW) set to 1 by default. For uneven flow distribution:

specify Flow Rate Weighting for each outflow boundary: mi=FRWi/FRWi. static pressure varies among exits to accommodate flow distribution.

FRW1

velocity inlet

FRW2

Can also use Pressure Outlet boundaries to define exits. velocity-inlet (v,T )

0

pressure-outlet (ps)1

or pressure-inlet (p0,T0)

C19

pressure-outlet (ps)2

Fluent Inc. 5/30/2012

Used in compressible flows to prescribe mass flow rate at inlet. Not required for incompressible flows.

Available when density is calculated from the ideal gas law. Used to model free-stream compressible flow at infinity, with free-stream Mach number and static conditions specified.

Model external exhaust fan/outlet vent with specified pressure jump/loss coefficient and ambient (discharge) pressure and temperature. Model inlet vent/external intake fan with specified loss coefficient/ pressure jump, flow direction, and ambient (inlet) pressure and temperature.

C20 Fluent Inc. 5/30/2012

C21

Wall Boundaries

Used to bound fluid and solid regions. In viscous flows, no-slip condition enforced at walls

Tangential velocity component specified in terms of translational or rotational motion of wall boundary.

Wall shear stress and heat transfer based on local flow field. Assumed to be rigid and impermeable

For accurate predictions of wall shear stress, be sure to resolve boundary layers in viscous flows.

C22

Symmetry Boundaries

Used to reduce computational effort in problem. Flow field and geometry must be symmetric:

Zero normal velocity at symmetry plane Zero normal gradients of all variables at symmetry plane

No inputs required.

symmetry planes

C23 Fluent Inc. 5/30/2012

Periodic Boundaries

Used when physical geometry of interest and expected pattern of flow/thermal solution have periodically repeating nature.

4 tangential inlets

Type 1: Does not allow pressure drop across periodic planes. Type 2: Periodic boundaries with pressure drop.

I J

cyclic boundaries

C24

computational domain

flow direction

C25 Fluent Inc. 5/30/2012

Axis Boundaries

Used:

At centerline (y=0) of an axisymmetric grid Where multiple grid lines meet at a point in a 3D O-type grid

Specify:

No inputs required

AXIS boundary

C26

Flow Inlets and Exits Wall, Repeating, and Pole Boundaries Internal Cell Zones

Fluid Porous

Solid

C27

Fluid Conditions

Fluid zone = group of cells for which all active equations are solved. Only required input is type of fluid material

Can define motion for fluid zone If rotationally periodic boundaries adjacent to fluid zone, use rotation axis. Define fluid zone as laminar flow region if modeling transitional flow.

C28 Fluent Inc. 5/30/2012

Enable Porous Zone option in Fluid panel. Pressure loss in flow determined via user inputs.

Used to model flow through porous media and other distributed resistances:

Packed beds Filter papers Perforated plates Flow distributors Tube banks

C29

Solid Conditions

Solid zone = group of cells for which only heat conduction problem solved.

Material being treated as solid may actually be fluid, but it is assumed that no convection takes place. Only required input is material type

Optional inputs allow you to set volumetric heat generation rate (heat source). Can define motion for solid zone Need to specify rotation axis if rotationally periodic boundaries adjacent to solid zone.

C30

Do not have finite thickness Provide means of introducing step change in flow properties. Fans Radiators Porous jump

Interior wall

C31

Summary

Zones are used to assign boundary conditions. Wide range of boundary conditions permit flow to enter and exit solution domain. Wall boundary conditions used to bound fluid and solid regions. Repeating boundaries used to reduce computational effort. Internal cell zones used to specify fluid, solid, and porous regions. Internal face boundaries provide way to introduce step change in flow properties.

C32

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