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Nutrition and Dietetics

Low Potassium Diet Low Purine Diet

Potassium
Potassium - Potassium is a very important mineral for the proper function of all cells, tissues, and organs in the human body. It is also an electrolyte, a substance that conducts electricity in the body, along with sodium, chloride, calcium, and magnesium. Potassium is crucial to heart function and plays a key role in skeletal and smooth muscle contraction, making it important for normal digestive and muscular function. Many foods contain potassium, including all meats, some types of fish (such as salmon, cod, and flounder), and many fruits, vegetables, and legumes. Dairy products are also good sources of potassium.

Importance of Potassium
Potassium is a mineral (electrolyte) in the body. Almost 98% of potassium is found inside the cells. Small changes in the level of potassium that is present outside the cells can have severe effects on the heart, nerves, and muscles. Potassium is important to maintain several bodily functions: Muscles need potassium to contract. The heart muscle needs potassium to beat properly and regulate blood pressure.

Low potassium levels (hypokalemia), can cause weakness as cellular processes are impaired. Low potassium can occur for many reasons. Use of water pills (diuretics), diarrhea, and chronic laxative abuse are the most common causes of low potassium levels.

In general, experts recommend eating a diet that contains at least 4700 mg of potassium per day . However, most people with chronic kidney disease should eat less than 1500 to 2700 mg of potassium per day. Fruit One to three servings of low-potassium fruit per day Vegetables Two to three servings of low-potassium vegetables per day Dairy and calcium rich foods One to two servings of lowpotassium choices per day Meat and meat alternatives Three to seven servings of lowpotassium choices per day (approximately 15 percent of calories) Grains Four to seven servings of low-potassium grains per day

Diet
General FoodBread (bread products) Cake - angel, yellow Coffee ( maximum 8 ounces) Cookies (without nuts or chocolate) Noodles Pasta Pies (without chocolate or high-potassium foods) Rice Tea (maximum 16 ounces)

Vegetables
Asparagus - 6 spears Beans (wax or green) Cabbage (red and green) Canned Chestnuts Carrots (cooked) Celery (1 stalk) Corn (Fresh - ear, Frozen - cup) Cucumber Eggplant Fresh mushrooms Green Peas Leached potatoes Lettuce Okra Onions Parsley Peppers Radish

Meat
Shellfish Fresh fish Oysters Chicken Unsalted canned tuna/salmon Veal Organ meats Unsalted beef Fresh pork

Fruits
Apple - 1 medium/juice/sauce Apricots, canned in juice Blueberries Cherries Cranberries Fruit cocktail Grapes (juice) Grapefruit, whole Mandarin oranges Peaches - Fresh (1 small), Canned ( cup) Pineapple (juice) Plums - 1 whole Raspberries Strawberries Tangerine - 1 whole Watermelon - 1 cup

Purine
Purine - are natural substances found in all of the body's cells, and in virtually all foods. The reason for their widespread occurrence is simple: purines provide part of the chemical structure of our genes and the genes of plants and animals. A relatively small number of foods, however, contain concentrated amounts of purines. For the most part, these high-purine foods are also highprotein foods, and they include organ meats like kidney, fish like mackerel, herring, sardines and mussels, and also yeast.

Low Purine Diet


A low purine diet restricts the amount of purine to only 150 mg from the usual Filipino food intake of 600-1000 mg purine per day. The low purine diet is prescribed as an adjunct to drug therapy for gout, arthritis and other disorders affecting purine metabolism. It is also recommended for people with uric acid urinary stone. Daily consumption of water should be increased since this helps in eliminating uric acid. A high intake of carbohydrates also favors uric acid excretion while a high fat intake favors its retention.

Uric Acid
Uric acid is a chemical created when the body breaks down substances called purines. Purines are found in some foods and drinks, such as liver, anchovies, mackerel, dried beans and peas, beer, and wine. Most uric acid dissolves in blood and travels to the kidneys, where it passes out in urine. If your body produces too much uric acid or doesn't remove enough if it, you can get sick. High levels of uric acid in the body is called hyperuricemia.

Foods to be Avoided
Meat: Internal Organs Legumes and Dried Beans: Chick peas, munggo beans, sitaw, garbanzos Fishes: Tulingan, Tanigue, Dilis (Anchovies), Alumahan, Matang Baka, Tamban, Bisugo, Dalagang bukid, Galunggong, Halaan, Hasa-hasa, Hipon, puti Lapu-lapu, Maya-maya, Pusit, Tahong, Tambakol Talaba, Tilapya,.

Consuming a low purine diet significantly minimizes the risk of damaging body joints and promoting the development of gout. Purine is a nucleotide base vital to the gene structure and operation of plants and animals. While most foods incorporate small amounts of purine, a few foods contain much higher purine levels.

We need certain amounts of uric acid to promote healthy blood vessel linings that properly maintain blood flow throughout the body. However, when uric acid levels exceed the beneficial limit, a substance called monosodium urate crystals accumulates in joints, tendons and kidneys, causing gout and sometimes kidney stones.

Sample Meal Plan


Breakfast: Bowl of cereal such as cornflakes or crisp rice White bread toast, buttered with olive oil spread Glass of skim milk Cup of tea or coffee or small glass of cherry juice Snack: Low-fat cheese and saltines or grapes Lunch: Sliced meat sandwich (ham, chicken or turkey) on white bread or Peanut butter sandwich on white bread Fruit salad Coffee, tea, water or cherry juice Small slice of white cake or two peanut butter or sugar cookies Dinner: Grilled chicken breast Pasta or rice Carrots, cauliflower or asparagus Water or cherry juice Pudding made with low-fat milk